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The award-winning Phase Change Matters blog tracks the latest news and research on phase change materials and thermal energy storage. E-mail tips and comments to Ben Welter, communications director at Entropy Solutions. Follow the blog on Twitter at @PureTemp. Subscribe to the monthly PCM newsletter. Or join the discussion on LinkedIn.

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Research roundup: Hysteresis; reflective roof coating; optimizing energy balance of nearly zero energy buildings; more

Ben Welter - Monday, August 31, 2020

From Journal of Molecular Liquids:

The research progress on phase change hysteresis affecting the thermal characteristics of PCMs: A review

From Journal of Building Engineering:

Thermal behavior of a phase change material in a building roof with and without reflective coating in a warm humid zone

From Renewable Energy:

A comprehensive study on thermal storage characteristics of nano-CeO2 embedded phase change material and its influence on the performance of evacuated tube solar water heater

From Sustainable Cities and Society:

Numerical analysis of phase change materials for optimizing the energy balance of a nearly zero energy building

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Multi-objective optimization of cooling and heating loads in residential buildings integrated with phase change materials using the artificial neural network and genetic algorithm
Assessing corrosive behaviour of commercial phase change materials in the 21–25 ºC temperature range
Exergy and economic analyses of nanoparticle-enriched phase change material in an air heat exchanger for cooling of residential buildings
Experimental and numerical investigation on enhancing heat transfer performance of a phase change thermal storage tank
The effect of ultraviolet coating on containment and fire hazards of phase change materials impregnated wood structure

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Application of granular materials for void space reduction within packed bed thermal energy storage system filled with macro-encapsulated phase change materials

From Chemical Engineering Journal:

Simultaneous solar-thermal energy harvesting and storage via shape stabilized salt hydrate phase change material

From Solar Energy:

Characterization and cooling effect of a novel cement-based composite phase change material
Effect of polymer-derived silicon carbonitride on thermal performances of polyethylene glycol based composite phase change materials

From Case Studies in Thermal Engineering:

Effect of porosity and pore density of copper foam on thermal performance of the paraffin-copper foam composite Phase-Change Material

From Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews:

A critical assessment on synergistic improvement in PCM based thermal batteries

From Journal of Energy Resources Technology:

Experimental Analysis of Salt Hydrate Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage System With Porous Aluminum Fabric and Salt Hydrate as Phase Change Material With Enhanced Stability and Supercooling

From Energy Sources:

Experimental study on thermal management and performance improvement of solar PV panel cooling using form stable phase change material
Experimental investigation of thermal performance of indirect mode solar dryer with phase change material for banana slices

From Aalto University:

Experimental design and investigation on a thermal energy storage system using phase change materials [thesis]

From Journal of Applied Physics:

Development of eco-sustainable plasters with thermal energy storage capability

From Chemical Engineering Transactions:

Thermal Performance of Phase Change Material Wallboard with Typical Structure: Artificial Controlled Condition Experimental Investigation

From Materials Research Express:

Fabrication of thermal energy storage wood based on graphene aerogel encapsulated polyethylene glycol as phase change material
Preparation and characterization of acrylic resin encapsulated n-dodecanol microcapsule phase change material

From ACS Sustainable Chemical Engineering:

Synthesis and Characterization of Fatty Acid Amides from Commercial Vegetable Oils and Primary Alkyl Amines for Phase Change Material Applications

From Carbohydrate Polymers:

Fibrous form-stable phase change materials with high thermal conductivity fabricated by interfacial polyelectrolyte complex spinning

From Materials Today: Proceedings:

Effect of various phase change materials (paraffin wax/hydrogenated vegetable oil) packed in a fabricated shell and tube type heat exchanger

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Composite phase change materials with heat transfer self-enhancement for thermal energy storage
Novel network structural PEG/PAA/SiO2 composite phase change materials with strong shape stability for storing thermal energy

From International Journal of Refrigeration:

Improving the performance of household refrigerating appliances through the integration of phase change materials in the context of the new global refrigerator standard IEC 62552:2015

From Advances in Colloid and Interface Science:

Nanoencapsulation of phase change materials (PCMs) and their applications in various fields for energy storage and management

From Building and Environment:

Space heating performance of novel ventilated mortar blocks integrated with phase change material for floor heating

From Energy:

A promising form-stable phase change material composed of C/SiO2 aerogel and palmitic acid with large latent heat as short-term thermal insulation

From Journal of Cleaner Production:

Enhanced thermal storage capacity of paraffin/diatomite composite using oleophobic modification

From International Conference on Renewable Energies for Developing Countries:

Storage efficiency of paraffin-LDPE-MWCNT phase change material for industrial building applications

Patent application: Thermal management systems including multiple phase changing materials

Ben Welter - Sunday, May 10, 2020

Toyota patent drawingU.S. patent application 20200136209 (applicant Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America Inc., Plano, Texas):

"A battery module including a battery cell and a thermal management system for removing heat from the battery cell. The thermal management system includes two or more unit cells in an array. Each unit cell includes a primary shell comprising a primary phase change material (PCM), and a secondary shell comprising a secondary PCM that is thermally coupled to the primary shell. The battery cell is thermally coupled to the primary shell at a heat transfer interface and the secondary shells of adjacent unit cells in the array are separate."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20200136209.pdf

Research roundup: Corn oil PCM in frozen food cooling machine; portable solar box cooker; expanded graphite/1-octadecanol composite; more

Ben Welter - Saturday, March 21, 2020

From Journal of Physics:

Corn oil phase change material (PCM) in frozen food cooling machine to improve energy efficiency

From Materials Today: Proceedings:

Investigating thermal properties of Nanoparticle Dispersed Paraffin (NDP) as phase change material for thermal energy storage

From Energy:

Effects of fluctuating thermal sources on a shell-and-tube latent thermal energy storage during charging process

From Solar Energy:

Design, realization, and tests of a portable solar box cooker coupled with an erythritol-based PCM thermal energy storage
Diversiform microstructure silicon carbides stabilized stearic acid as composite phase change materials

From International Journal of Thermofluids:

Investigating the performance of a thermal energy storage unit with paraffin as phase change material, targeting buildings’ cooling needs: an experimental approach

From Journal of Cleaner Production:

Energy and exergy analysis of wind farm integrated with compressed air energy storage using multi-stage phase change material

From Powder Technology:

Effect of nano-SiC on thermal properties of expanded graphite/1-octadecanol composite materials for thermal energy storage

From Journal of Energy Storage:

A multi-objective optimal design method for thermal energy storage systems with PCM: A case study for outdoor swimming pool heating application
Reducing PV module temperature with radiation based PV module incorporating composite phase change material
Numerical investigation on the effect of fin design on the melting of phase change material in a horizontal shell and tube thermal energy storage

From Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry:

Characterization of form-stable phase-change material for solar photovoltaic cooling

From International Journal of Thermophysics:

Thermophysical Properties of a Novel Nanoencapsulated Phase Change Material

From International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer:

Lattice Boltzmann simulation of forced convection melting of a composite phase change material with heat dissipation through an open-ended channel
High power density thermal energy storage using additively manufactured heat exchangers and phase change material

From Energies:

Evaluation of the State of Charge of a Solid/Liquid Phase Change Material in a Thermal Energy Storage Tank [pdf]
Novel Simulation Algorithm for Modeling the Hysteresis of Phase Change Materials [pdf]

From Energy & Fuels:

Novel shape-stabilized phase change materials based on paraffin/EPDM@graphene with high thermal conductivity and low leakage rate

From Polymers and Polymer Composites:

Regulating phase-change temperatures of form-stable phase-change ternary composite fibrous membranes consisting of polystyrene nanofibers and fatty acid eutectics via co-electrospinning method

From Applied Energy:

A design protocol for enhanced discharge exergy in phase change material heat battery
Fabrication of heat storage pellets composed of microencapsulated phase change material for high-temperature applications
A high-thermal-conductivity, high-durability phase-change composite using a carbon fibre sheet as a supporting matrix

From Journal of Building Engineering:

Preparation and characterization of metal-organic framework /microencapsulated phase change material composites for indoor hygrothermal control

From Indoor and Built Environment:

Numerical and experimental investigation on dynamic thermal performance of floor heating system with phase change material for thermal storage

From Applied Clay Science:

A triply synergistic method for palygorskite activation to effectively impregnate phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage

From Chemical Engineering Journal:

Lignin-fatty acid hybrid nanocapsules for scalable thermal energy storage in phase-change materials

From Construction and Building Materials:

Phase change materials for pavement applications: A review

From Carbohydrate Polymers:

Shape-stabilization of polyethylene glycol phase change materials with chitin nanofibers for applications in “smart” windows

Research roundup: Carbonized waste tires; cetyl palmitate/nickel foam; hydrated salt corrosion assessment; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, January 14, 2020

From Waste Management:

Evaluation of carbonized waste tire for development of novel shape stabilized composite phase change material for thermal energy storage

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Development of polyurethane foam incorporating phase change material for thermal energy storage
Facile synthesis and thermal performance of cetyl palmitate/nickel foam composite phase change materials for thermal energy storage
Optimal sizing design and operation of electrical and thermal energy storage systems in smart buildings

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Numerical investigation of the effects of the nano-enhanced phase change materials on the thermal and electrical performance of hybrid PV/thermal systems
Thermal storage and thermal management properties of a novel ventilated mortar block integrated with phase change material for floor heating: an experimental study

From Applied Energy:

Wood-based composite phase change materials with self-cleaning superhydrophobic surface for thermal energy storage

From Renewable Energy:

Corrosion assessment of promising hydrated salts as sorption materials for thermal energy storage systems
Experimental study on latent thermal energy storage system with gradient porosity copper foam for mid-temperature solar energy application
Selection of a phase change material and its thickness for application in walls of buildings for solar-assisted steam curing of precast concrete
Experimental assessment of Phase Change Material (PCM) embedded bricks for passive conditioning in buildings

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Analysis of energy retrofit system using latent heat storage materials applied to residential buildings considering climate impacts
Experimental and numerical simulation of phase change process for paraffin/expanded graphite/ethylene-vinyl acetate ternary composite
An experimental investigation on the evaporation of polystyrene encapsulated phase change composite material based nanofluids

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Lightweight mesoporous carbon fibers with interconnected graphitic walls for supports of form-stable phase change materials with enhanced thermal conductivity

From Energies:

The Effects of Fin Parameters on the Solidification of PCMs in a Fin-Enhanced Thermal Energy Storage System

From Journal of Materials Science:

Graphene aerogel-based phase changing composites for thermal energy storage systems

From Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology:

A study on development of the thermal storage type plate heat exchanger including PCM layer

From Journal of Power Sources:

Delayed liquid cooling strategy with phase change material to achieve high temperature uniformity of Li-ion battery under high-rate discharge

From Scientific Reports:

Modification of asphalt mixtures for cold regions using microencapsulated phase change materials

From ASES National Solar Conference:

A Study on the Thermal Energy Storage System Using Multiple PCMs [pdf]

From Molecules:

Assessment of Thermal Performance of Textile Materials Modified with PCM Microcapsules Using Combination of DSC and Infrared Thermography Methods

From Energy and Buildings:

Experimental study on thermal performance of a mobilized thermal energy storage system: A case study of hydrated salt latent heat storage

From Chemical Engineering Journal:

Shape-stabilized hydrated salt/paraffin composite phase change materials for advanced thermal energy storage and management

From International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer:

A conjugate heat transfer model for unconstrained melting of macroencapsulated phase change materials subjected to external convection

Patent application: Battery-cooling heat sink provided with PCM capsule

Ben Welter - Friday, September 20, 2019

U.S. patent application 20190288351 (applicant LG Chem Ltd., Seoul, South Korea):

"A battery module including a battery-cooling heat sink having a PCM capsule. The battery-cooling heat sink provides a uniform temperature of a cooling fluid flowing through the battery module using a PCM capsule, minimizes a temperature variation of the cooling fluid over the entire area of the heat sink formed in the battery module, and prevents the temperature at a cooling fluid outlet of the heat sink from being higher than that of a cooling fluid inlet."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20190288351.pdf

Research roundup: Mesoporous silica; nanoencapsulation of oleic acid PCM; flexible crosslinking; more

Ben Welter - Friday, September 20, 2019

From International Journal of Energy Research:

Facile functionalized mesoporous silica using biomimetic method as new matrix for preparation of shape‐stabilized phase‐change material with improved enthalpy
Binary mixtures of fatty alcohols and fatty acid esters as novel solid‐liquid phase change materials

From Journal of Applied Polymer Science:

Phase change material with flexible crosslinking for thermal energy storage

From Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry:

Nanoencapsulation of oleic acid phase change material with Ag2O nanoparticles-based urea formaldehyde shell for building thermal energy storage

From Renewable Energy:

Enhanced properties of diatomite-based composite phase change materials for thermal energy storage

From Energy:

Perspectives for short-term thermal energy storage using salt hydrates for building heating
Design and construction of mesoporous silica/n-eicosane phase-change nanocomposites for supercooling depression and heat transfer enhancement
Numerical investigations on performance of phase change material Trombe wall in building

From Energy and Buildings:

Potential of energy flexible buildings: evaluation of DSM strategies using building thermal mass
Numerical analysis in a full-scale thermal energy storage tank with dual PCM capsules

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Experimental determination and fractal modeling of the effective thermal conductivity of autoclave aerated concrete (AAC) impregnated with paraffin for improved thermal storage performance
Preparation and characterization of new nano-particle mixed as thermal storage material
Numerical investigation on integrated thermal management for a lithium-ion battery module with a composite phase change material and liquid cooling

From Chemical Engineering Journal:

Fatty Amines/Graphene Sponge Form-Stable Phase Change Material Composites with Exceptionally High Loading Rates and Energy Density for Thermal Energy Storage

From MATEC Web of Conferences:

Thermal conductivity of aerated concrete (AC) composites containing micro-encapsulated phase change materials [pdf]
Overheating mitigation in buildings: a computational exploration of the potential of phase change materials [pdf]

From Solar Energy:

Experimental study on the thermal performance of capric acid-myristyl alcohol/expanded perlite composite phase change materials for thermal energy storage

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Graphitization as efficient inhibitor of the carbon steel corrosion by molten binary nitrate salt for thermal energy storage at concentrated solar power
A strategy for designing microencapsulated composite phase change thermal storage materials with tunable melting temperature

From Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers 2019 Summer Conference:

Thermal Management System in Electric vehicle Battery Pack Using Phase Change Material

From Materials Chemistry and Physics:

Preparation and thermal properties of n-eicosane/nano-SiO2/expanded graphite composite phase-change material for thermal energy storage

From Sustainable Cities and Society:

Simulative optimization on energy saving performance of phase change panels with different phase transition temperatures

From Thermochimica Acta:

The stability and thermophysical properties of a thermal fluid containing surface-functionalized nanoencapsulated PCM

From International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer:

Functionalized mesoporous silica as matrix for shape-stabilized phase change materials

From Applied Energy:

Synthesis and characterization of microencapsulated sodium sulfate decahydrate as phase change energy storage materials

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Prototype latent heat storage system with aluminum-silicon as a phase change material and a Stirling engine for electricity generation

From Journal of Solar Energy Engineering:

Experimental Investigation and Numerical Modeling of Room Temperature Control in Buildings by the Implementation of Phase Change Material in the Roof
Suitability Assessment and Experimental Characterization of Phase Change Materials for Energy Conservation in Indian Buildings

Patent application: Regenerative solid-solid phase change cooling for an energy storage device

Ben Welter - Monday, September 09, 2019

U.S. patent application 20190273295 (applicant Anhui Xinen Technology Co. Ltd., Anqing Anhui, China):

"Disclosed is a technique for managing the temperature of rechargeable cells. An energy storage device can include a plurality of rechargeable cells disposed within a housing and a material disposed within the housing so as to completely surround each of the rechargeable cells in a particular plane. The material can have a thermal characteristic such that the material remains a solid upon absorbing heat from the rechargeable cells by changing a crystal lattice structure. Intrinsic latent heat properties of the material result in absorption or release of heat to maintain a temperature of a rechargeable cell within a pre-defined temperature range. A regenerative mechanism including a heat pump coil can restore the material to a lower energy crystal lattice structure."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20190273295.pdf

Research roundup: Diatomite‐based hydrated salt composites; zinc oxide coating of hermetically encapsulated paraffins; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, July 25, 2019

From International Journal of Energy Research:

Design of diatomite‐based hydrated salt composites with low supercooling degree and enhanced heat transfer for thermal energy storage

From Journal of Physical Chemistry B:

Clusters in Liquid Fatty Acids: Structure and Role in Nucleation

From Construction and Building Materials:

Development of thermal energy storage lightweight structural cementitious composites by means of macro-encapsulated PCM
Preparation of microencapsulated phase change materials used graphene oxide to improve thermal stability and its incorporation in gypsum materials

From Journal of Power and Energy:

Numerical modelling of phase change material melting process embedded in porous media: Effect of heat storage size

From Advanced Materials Interfaces:

Phase Change Materials: Doubly Coated, Organic–Inorganic Paraffin Phase Change Materials: Zinc Oxide Coating of Hermetically Encapsulated Paraffins

From NASA Technical Reports Server:

Utilization of Micro Tube Heat Exchanger for Next Generation Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

From SN Applied Sciences:

Encapsulation of paraffin wax by rigid cross-linked poly (styrene divinylbenzene-acrylic acid) and its thermal characterization

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Transient performance of a Peltier super cooler under varied electric pulse conditions with phase change material

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Thermal optimization of a kirigami-patterned wearable lithium-ion battery based on a novel design of composite phase change material
An experimental and theoretical study of the solidification process of phase change materials in a horizontal annular enclosure

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Enhancement of the thermal energy storage capacity of a parabolic dish concentrated solar receiver using phase change materials

From Renewable Energy:

Numerical simulation on the thermal performance of a PCM-containing ventilation system with a continuous change in inlet air temperature

From Energy Fuels:

Graphene modified hydrate salt/UV-curable resin form-stable phase change materials: continuously adjustable phase change temperature and ultrafast solar-to-thermal conversion

From Journal of Industrial and Chemical Engineering:

Thermal performance enhancement of a phase change material with expanded graphite via ultrasonication

From Chemistry Select:

Microencapsulation of Stearic Acid into Strontium Titanate Shell by Sol‐Gel Approach for Thermal Energy Storage

Patent application: Battery module, battery pack module and vehicle including battery pack

Ben Welter - Thursday, July 18, 2019

LG Chem battery module drawingU.S. patent application 20190221901 (applicant LG Chem Ltd., Seoul, South Korea):

"A battery module includes a plurality of battery cell assemblies, each having at least one battery cell; a bottom case configured to accommodate the plurality of battery cell assemblies; an upper case mounted to an upper side of the bottom case to expose a part of an upper side, a part of a front side and a part of a rear side of adjacent battery cell assemblies of the plurality of battery cell assemblies; and a cooling unit configured to cover the exposed parts of the adjacent battery cell assemblies and having a phase change material for cooling the adjacent battery cell assemblies."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20190221901.pdf

PCM briefing: Axiotherm wins smarter E Award; update on Malta thermal battery project

Ben Welter - Friday, May 17, 2019

Axiotherm GmbH of Germany was among the winners at this year's smarter E Awards in Munich. Axiotherm was honored in the renewable energy category for kraftBoxx, a thermal energy storage system that uses phase change technology for heating and hot water. The company says kraftBoxx has a higher energy storage capacity than conventional heat and cold storage systems. KraftBoxx is a joint development with Klara Energy and Tuxhorn within the scope of the PCM-based HeatSel product line marketed by Axiotherm. 

China says it will raise tariffs on $60 billion of U.S. goods June 1, including palmitic acid, stearic acid and their salts and esters. The move is response to the U.S. tariff hike on $200 billion worth of Chinese goods that took effect on May 10.  

• In an interview with SolarPACES, Malta Inc. engineer Sebastian Freund provides an update on the Massachusetts company's plans to develop a standalone thermal storage battery using molten salts. “We plan to build a pilot plant with 10MW power and at least six hours of storage duration, depending on customer specifications,” Freund said. Malta hopes to attract enough investors over the next three years to complete an 80MWh thermal energy storage pilot.