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The award-winning Phase Change Matters blog tracks the latest news and research on phase change materials and thermal energy storage. E-mail tips and comments to Ben Welter, communications director at Entropy Solutions. Follow the blog on Twitter at @PureTemp. Subscribe to the weekly PCM newsletter. Or join the discussion on LinkedIn.

Two Entropy advisors, Dr. Mohammed Farid and Lucas B. Hyman, are pleased to take your questions about PCMs and thermal energy storage. Send your questions to bwelter@puretemp.com. We'll select the best and post the answers here each week.

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PCM briefing: Cleanergy lands CSP contract in China; ASHRAE extends global reach

Ben Welter - Monday, July 03, 2017

• Team Sky cyclists competing in this year's Tour de France are using Inuteq's Siku vest to cool down after each stage. The Dutch company's hybrid vest combines PCM and evaporative cooling technologies. Inuteq says it is supplying its cooling products to two other teams: Bahrain Merida and Cannondale Drapac.

Calmac, the New Jersey company whose thermal energy storage tanks help cool more than more than 4,500 buildings worldwide, including the corporate headquarters of JC Penney, Marriott and Google, was profiled in Inc. magazine last week.  

Ember Technologies' temperature-controlled mug is a finalist in the 2017 International Design Excellence Awards in the Kitchen & Accessories category. The winners will be announced Aug. 16 at the International Designers Society of America conference in Atlanta. 

Cleanergy AB of Sweden has signed an agreement to deploy a 200-MW concentrating solar energy project in China. A Cleanergy spokeswoman confirmed that phase change material will be used in the CSP project's thermal storage system but declined to provide details about the PCM. 

Midsize energy and chemical companies are among the least prepared for the disruption that technological innovation and other changes will bring, a new report from Capital One Commercial Bank says.

• A U.S. House appropriations subcommittee last week advanced a bill that would impose deep cuts in renewable energy and efficiency programs at the Department of Energy and eliminate the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy, ARPA-E.

ASHRAE has announced the formation of a new ASHRAE Region in Europe and strategic partnerships with two European organizations: the UK-based Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers and the Belgium-based Federation of European Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Associations.

• PCM will be among the topics at the 3rd International Conference: Innovative Materials and Smart Technologies for Environmental Safety. The conference will take place Sept. 27-29 in Latvia. The student conference includes a lecture titled "Heat Transfer Enhancement in Phase-Change Materials" by Dr. Gennady Ziskind, professor of mechanical engineering at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel. 

BASF, Cargill, Procter & Gamble and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH have joined together in a development partnership to help establish a sustainable certified and transparent supply chain of coconut oil in the Philippines and Indonesia.  

• New from Zion Market Research: "Temperature Controlled Packaging Market: Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecasts 2016–2024"

Bio-Based World News reports that the biobased sector of Finland's economy is now worth 60 billion euros. About 60 percent of the sector is rooted in the country's forest industry. 

Research roundup: INPATH-TES Ph.D. program; waste-to-energy plants; EnergyPlus-based building model; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, June 29, 2017

INPATH-TES: Innovative pathways to PhD research in thermal energy storage [Sustainable and Renewable Energy Engineering]

Application of high temperature phase change materials for improved efficiency in waste-to-energy plants [Waste Management]

Experimental investigation and EnergyPlus-based model prediction of thermal behavior of building containing phase change material [Journal of Building Engineering]

Experimental Analysis of Graphite Dispersed Salt Hydrates based Phase Change Materials to Determine Enhancement in their Thermophysical Properties [pdf] [Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences]

Use of phase change materials during compressed air expansion for isothermal CAES plants [35th UIT Heat Transfer Conference]

Simulation of Melting Process of a Phase Change Material (PCM) using ANSYS (Fluent) [pdf] [International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology]

Cellulose/Paraffin Composite Fibers for Thermal Energy Storage and Temperature Regulation [IUMRS International Conference in Asia]

Enhanced Specific Heat Capacity of Binary Chloride Salt by Dissolving Magnesium for High-temperature Thermal Energy Storage and Transfer [Journal of Materials Chemistry A]

Advanced Buildings Skins conference to feature 10+ sessions on PCM

Ben Welter - Monday, June 26, 2017

The agenda is taking shape for the 12th International Conference on Advanced Building Skins, to be held Oct. 2-3 in Bern, Switzerland. More than 250 speakers from 40 nations will give presentations.

The registration fee is 680 euros and includes the conference documentation as well as meals during both days. Participants who register by June 30 will receive a 20 percent discount.

Presentations related to phase change material, all conducted in English, include:

• “Ventilation units with PCM for double-skin BIPV façades,” Jakub Curpek, faculty of Civil Engineering STU in Bratislava, Slovakia

Building skins conference photo• “PCM melting temperature optimization for passive cooling and heating,” Alvaro de Gracia, University Rovira i Virgili, Spain

• “Thermal properties of a four-pane window filled with PCM,” Martin Zalesak, Tomas Bata University, Czech Republic

• “PCM-enhanced mortar for thermally activated building components,” Lorenzo Olivieri, Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja, Spain

• “Thermal performance of multifunctional façade contained PCM,” Romeu Vicente, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Aveiro, Portugal

• “Microcapsulated PCM and geopolymer concrete,” Vinh Duy Cao, Østfold University College, Norway

• “Implementing hysteresis and subcooling in simulation of PCM panels,” Craig Farnham, Osaka City University, Japan

• “Lightweight building envelopes with PCM,” Ricardo Almeida, CI&DETS - Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Portugal

• “Thermal Performance of Phase Change Materials for the Building Skin Granular phase change material composites,” Xiangyu Li, Taiyuan University of Technology, China

• “Numerical investigation of a ventilated façade with PCM for heating purposes,” Josep Ramon Castro, University of Lleida, Spain

https://abs.green/program-2017/

PCM briefing: Ice Energy signs Australian distribution deal; program posted for thermal management conference in Denver

Ben Welter - Monday, June 26, 2017

Ice Energy of Santa Barbara, Calif., has entered into an agreement calling for Apricus Australia to become the exclusive distributor for all Ice Energy products in Australia. Apricus will market and sell to utilities, businesses and residential customers and will be responsible for installation and service. 

The program has been posted for the 2017 Advancements in Thermal Management conference to be held in Denver Aug. 9-10. Mark Hartmann, CTO at Outlast Technologies, will give a presentation on "Thermal Runaway Prevention of Li-ion Batteries by Novel Thermal Management System." Greg Albright, vice president of business development at AllCell Technologies, will give a presentation on "Conductivity Enhanced Phase Change Materials for Transient Loads." 

• At this month's Techtextil North America trade show in Chicago, Alexium International said it was on track to ship more than 90,000 kilograms of its Alexicool PCM product in June. The company, based in Greer, S.C., and Perth, Australia, sells the product to mattress fabric producers. Alexium's share price rose 21 percent last week on the Australian Securities Exchange, to 62.5 cents AUS. 

Viking Cold Solutions of Houston has been named to Food Logistics magazine's list of Top Green Providers for 2017. The list recognizes companies whose products, services or leadership is enhancing sustainability in the food and beverage industry. Viking makes a PCM-based thermal battery system designed cut energy consumption cold storage warehouses. 

Entropy Solutions, maker of PureTemp phase change materials, was among the companies honored with a Eureka! Innovation Award at a reception last week. The Minneapolis/St. Paul Business Journal awards program recognizes "game-changing" Minnesota businesses in energy, manufacturing, media, product design, engineering and other categories.

Monodraught Ltd. has been accredited by the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers to deliver three new continuing professional development modules. One of the free courses explores the use of phase change materials in ventilation systems to reduce a building’s energy consumption and carbon footprint.  

Masdar Institute and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have tested and validated what is touted as the world’s first direct absorption molten salt receiver for concentrated solar power. The single-tank thermal energy storage system has been operational for over two weeks at the Masdar Institute Solar Platform in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The tank holds roughly 4 tons of molten salt, capable of reaching temperatures over 500 degrees Celsius.

• A study published in the journal Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness highlights the importance of cooling vests for health care workers wearing personal protective equipment in hot, humid environments. Study participants wearing vests fitted with ice packs, phase change materials or water hoses under protective equipment showed fewer signs of heat stress than those who did not.

• New research from Future Market Insights: "Chilled Water Storage System Market: Global Industry Analysis 2012 – 2016 and Opportunity Assessment; 2017 – 2027"

Research roundup: Mid-temperature solar collector; PCM use in NZEB buildings; modeling of nitrate materials; more

Ben Welter - Friday, June 23, 2017

Experimental investigation and theoretical analysis on a mid-temperature solar collector/storage system with composite PCM [Applied Thermal Engineering]

Experimental and computational study of melting phase-change material in a triplex tube heat exchanger with longitudinal/triangular fins [Solar Energy]

Thermodynamic modeling of nitrate materials for hybrid thermal energy storage: Using latent and sensible mechanisms [Solar Energy]

Outdoor Characterization of Phase Change Materials and Assessment of Their Energy Saving Potential to Reach NZEB [Buildings]

Preparation and Supercooling Modification of Salt Hydrate Phase Change Materials Based on CaCl2·2H2O/CaCl2 [Materials]

Research roundup: PCM-assisted night purge ventilation; dispersed metallic nanoparticles; crystallohydrates; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, June 20, 2017

Nanoencapsulated crystallohydrate mixtures for advanced thermal energy storage [Journal of Materials Chemistry A]

Hexadecane-in-water emulsions as thermal-energy storage and heat transfer fluids: Connections between phase-transition temperature and period of hexadecane droplets dispersed in hexadecane-in-water emulsions and characteristics of surfactants [Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects]

Evaluating the Performance of American Change Phase Paraffin Cooling Vest and Iranian Spadana Gel Ice Cooling Vest on the Perceptual and Physiological Strain Score Index in Hot and Humid Working Conditions of Assaluyeh in Iran [International Journal of Occupational Hygiene]

Development of thermal enhanced n-octadecane/porous nano carbon-based materials using 3-step filtered vacuum impregnation method [Thermochimica Acta]

The impact of phase change materials assisted night purge ventilation on the indoor thermal conditions of office buildings in hot-arid climates [Energy and Buildings]

Thermal energy harvest in the discharge of CO2 semi-clathrate hydrate in an emulated cold storage system [Applied Thermal Engineering]

Melting dynamics of a phase change material (PCM) with dispersed metallic nanoparticles using transport coefficients from empirical and mean field models [Applied Thermal Engineering]

Comparative assessment of thermal comfort with insulation and phase change materials utilizations in building roofs and walls [pdf] [Advanced Materials Proceedings]

Fabrication and properties of graphene oxide-grafted-poly(hexadecyl acrylate) as a solid-solid phase change material [Composites Science and Technology]

PCM briefing: Viking Cold Solutions lands deal in Phoenix; study finds ARPA-E is doing what it was designed to do

Ben Welter - Monday, June 19, 2017

Viking Cold Solutions has announced a collaboration between Salt River Project and Bashas' Supermarkets to install and evaluate the performance of Viking's PCM-based thermal energy storage system at Bashas' distribution center in the Phoenix area. The system is expected to significantly reduce energy costs by shifting peak demand to nighttime hours.

A six-year study finds that ARPA-E, the U.S. Energy Department program that supports cutting-edge energy technologies, is meeting the goals of the 2007 law that created it even as the Trump administration seeks to eliminate its funding. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine report concludes that the program is moving in the right direction and does not require major changes to keep bringing new energy technologies to market.

• The co-creator of a camisole that uses phase change material to reduce the discomfort of hot flashes is profiled in ChicagoInno this month. Nancy Munro, who is selling "CoolCami" online, hopes to partner with a women’s undergarment company like Spanx or Soma. CoolCami is made of absorbent bamboo fabric and features a PCM-filled cooling liner.

Peli BioThermal reports that its ProMed thermal transport bags performed well in a five-month trial in the United Kingdom. The Great North Air Ambulance Service used the bags to transport blood plasma to accident scenes.

Ministry of Supply, the Boston startup that integrates phase change material in its high-tech menswear, has added a lightweight polo shirt to its lineup. The machine-washable Apollo 3 Polo sells for $70. 

Axiom Exergy, maker of "refrigeration batteries" designed to reduce energy use in supermarkets, is looking to fill eleven positions, including product engineer, product engineer manager and engineering intern. Candidates for the internship are asked to give a concise response to a "bonus question": "Given the choice between pure water and a NaCl-water solution as the thermal energy storage medium in medium temperature (40°F, 4.4°C) refrigeration applications, what are the pros and cons of each material?"

CIC energiGUNE is looking for a laboratory technician to join the Thermal Energy Storage unit's materials development and characterization group.

• The European Commission, in with collaboration with Skanska, Saint-Gobain, Sustainable Building Alliance and Green Building Councils, has developed an open-source assessment framework for measuring the energy performance of buildings. Level(s) links a building’s environmental impact with resource priorities at the European level. The voluntary tool will be ready for testing this fall.

Va-Q-tec AG has established a Japanese subsidiary in Tokyo. The German company develops, manufactures and sells vacuum insulation panels and phase change materials for use in thermal packaging, air freight containers and other applications. Va-Q-tec Japan GK will focus on providing "small box and container sales and rental solutions" in the Asian market.

• A recent New York Times piece answered the question: "What if you need a battery? A really big one — big enough to run a city?" A 2.35-million-square-foot office tower in New York City is among many buildings around the world equipped with a system that stores energy in the form of ice. The system freezes water overnight to help cool the building during the day, when electricity is typically more expensive.  

Massachusetts has awarded $1.5 million to help fund installation of more than 200 residential thermal energy storage units on Nantucket. Ice Energy, which makes the Ice Bear units, is partnering with Genbright LLC on the project. The goal is to help reduce peak energy demand and demonstrate an alternative to a third undersea transmission line to the island.

SaltX Technology and Aalborg CSP have agreed to work together to develop and commercialize an integrated energy storage solution for concentrated solar power based on EnerStore, SaltX's patented technology for large-scale energy storage. A prototype is scheduled to be built later this year with the aim of securing a commercial pilot plant in 2018.

Research roundup: Cool roof system; inorganic double salt hydrates; optimizing energy performance in buildings; more

Ben Welter - Monday, June 12, 2017

From International Journal of Refrigeration:

Experimental phase diagram of the dodecane-tridecane system as phase change material in cold storage

From Building and Environment:

Effect of PCM cool roof system on the reduction in urban heat island phenomenon

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Two components based polyethylene glycol/thermosetting solid-solid phase change material composites as novel form stable phase change materials for flexible thermal energy storage application
Corrosion of steel alloys in eutectic NaCl+Na2CO3 at 700 °C and Li2CO3 + K2CO3 + Na2CO3 at 450 °C for thermal energy storage
Characterization of wastes based on inorganic double salt hydrates as potential thermal energy storage materials

From Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews:

Passive cooling of buildings with phase change materials using whole-building energy simulation tools: A review

From Energy:

Design optimization method for tube and fin latent heat thermal energy storage systems

From Applied Energy:

Simulation-based optimization of PCM melting temperature to improve the energy performance in buildings

From Energy and Buildings:

Energy assessment of a novel dynamic PCMs based solar shading: results from an experimental campaign

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Improving Thermal Characteristics and Stability of Phase Change Material Containing TiO2 Nanoparticles after Thermal Cycles for Energy Storage

PCM wood flooring concept is finalist for Schweighofer Prize

Ben Welter - Friday, June 09, 2017

A Canadian Ph.D. student who wants to develop PCM-enhanced engineered wood flooring is one of six finalists for the 2017 Schweighofer Prize Student Award. 

Damien Mathis of Laval University in Quebec proposes flooring with a layer of solid-solid PCMs, which would allow the boards to be cut and installed without the risk of leakage associated with solid-liquid PCMs. He envisions a product with four times the thermal mass of standard EWF.

"I'm planning to use new solid-solid PCMs that are currently in development," he said in an interview. "It's nonflammable white powder with a PC enthalpy of ~100 J/g."

The Schweighofer Prize recognizes innovative ideas, technologies, products and services aimed at strengthening Europe's wood products industry. The winner in the student category, which will be determined in part by online voting, will be honored at an awards ceremony June 20 in Vienna. A prize of 5,000 euros accompanies the award.  

https://www.schweighofer-prize.org/student_award/?lang=EN

Research roundup: Shape-stabilized PCM in epoxy matrix; myristyl alcohol/metal foam for solar thermal storage; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, June 01, 2017

Illustration of shape-stabilized PCM in epoxy matrix

Novel shape stabilized phase change material based on epoxy matrix with ultrahigh cycle life for thermal energy storage [Applied Thermal Engineering]

Thermal and electrical performance of a PV module integrated with double layers of water-saturated MEPCM [Applied Thermal Engineering]

Investigation on thermal and mechanical characteristics of concrete mixed with shape stabilized phase change material for mix design [Construction and Building Materials]

Thermal properties and thermal conductivity enhancement of composite phase change materials using myristyl alcohol/metal foam for solar thermal storage [Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells]

Experimental and Numerical Study on Energy Performance of Buildings Integrated with Phase Change Materials [Energy Procedia]

Evaluation on Performance of a Phase Change Material Based Cold Storage House [Energy Procedia]

Using Phase Change Materials to Reduce Overheating Issues in UK Residential Buildings [Energy Procedia]

Effect of Supercooling on the Solidification Process of the Phase Change Material [Energy Procedia]

Experimental Investigation of a Spiral Tube Embedded Latent Thermal Energy Storage Tank Using Paraffin as PCM [Energy Procedia]

Investigation of specific heat and latent heat enhancement in hydrate salt based TiO2 nanofluid phase change material [Applied Thermal Engineering]

Modeling and investigation of high temperature phase change materials (PCM) in different storage tank configurations [Journal of Cleaner Production]

Lauric acid/modified sepiolite composite as a form-stable phase change material for thermal energy storage [Applied Clay Science]