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The award-winning Phase Change Matters blog tracks the latest news and research on phase change materials and thermal energy storage. E-mail tips and comments to Ben Welter, communications director at Entropy Solutions. Follow the blog on Twitter at @PureTemp. Subscribe to the weekly PCM newsletter. Or join the discussion on LinkedIn.

Two Entropy advisors, Dr. Mohammed Farid and Lucas B. Hyman, are pleased to take your questions about PCMs and thermal energy storage. Send your questions to bwelter@puretemp.com. We'll select the best and post the answers here each week.

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Research roundup: PCM compatibility with metals, plastic; desiccant packet for cooling vest; paraffin viscosity; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, March 23, 2017

Investigation of the corrosive properties of phase change materials in contact with metals and plastic [Renewable Energy]

Preparation and thermal properties of SAT-CMC-DSP/EG composite as phase change material [Applied Thermal Engineering]

A numerical study on the usage of phase change material (PCM) to prolong compressor off period in a beverage cooler [Energy Conversion and Management]

Abilities and limitations of thermal mass activation for thermal comfort, peak shifting and shaving: A review [Building and Environment]

Corrosion effect of phase change materials in solar thermal energy storage application [Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews]

A review for phase change materials (PCMs) in solar absorption refrigeration systems [Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews]

Sodium nitrate – Diatomite composite materials for thermal energy storage [Solar Energy]

Innovative PCM-desiccant packet to provide dry microclimate and improve performance of cooling vest in hot environment [Energy Conversion and Management]

Heat transfer study of phase change materials with graphene nano particle for thermal energy storage [Solar Energy]

Energy performance evaluation of heat-storage gypsum board with hybrid SSPCM composite [Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry]

Empirical equation to estimate viscosity of paraffin [Journal of Energy Storage]

Yearly energy performance of a photovoltaic-phase change material (PV-PCM) system in hot climate [Solar Energy]

PCM briefing: Sasol introduces Parafol 17; CIC Energigune seeks scientific director for energy storage group

Ben Welter - Tuesday, March 07, 2017

• In a LinkedIn post, the chemicals giant Sasol has announced the development of a new phase change material, Parafol 17. The product has a melting range of 20-22º Celsius. Potential applications include building/construction and the transportation of temperature-sensitive goods. The company says the new PCM is commercially available, but it is not yet listed on the company's websites.

CIC Energigune is seeking candidates for the position of scientific director in its energy storage group, which is focused on the research of systems that can store heat from medium to high temperatures. The research center, based in Spain's Basque Country, also has a leadership opening in the TES group's device, prototype and testing area. 

• Want to learn how your company can include sustainability in its business goals? Stanford University's Center for Professional Development is offering a free webinar, "The Pursuit of Sustainability," at 11 a.m Pacific time March 14. 

GreenCE is offering an online course titled "Inspiration Green: Biomimicry, Climate & Culture." The course, sponsored by T. Stern Sustainability of Seattle, will cover strategies used in high-performance buildings to reduce environmental impact and earn LEED credits. The cost: $35.

• New from Transparency Market Research: "1-Tetradecanol Market - Global Industry Analysis and Forecast 2024"

Sonoco ThermoSafe has posted the results of an industry survey on the "current and future state" of clinical trial supplies. Half of those surveyed said they planned to adopt new supply chain technology within the next two years.

Research roundup: 2 promising PCM candidates; calcium carbonate shell; thermocapillary effects; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, February 21, 2017

Thermal properties characterization of two promising phase change material candidates [Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry]

Self-assembly synthesis and properties of microencapsulated n-tetradecane phase change materials with calcium carbonate shell for cold energy storage [ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering]

Thermal Analysis of a Thermal Energy Storage Unit to Enhance a Workshop Heating System Driven by Industrial Residual Water [Energies]

Effect of a low-cost parabolic reflector on the charging efficiency of an evacuated tube collector/storage system with a PCM [Solar Energy]

Numerical study on free-surface jet impingement cooling with nanoencapsulated phase-change material slurry and nanofluid [International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer]

Heat transfer performance and melting dynamic of a phase change material subjected to thermocapillary effects [International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer]

Evaluation and optimization of melting performance for a latent heat thermal energy storage unit partially filled with porous media [Applied Energy]

Carbon nanotube/paraffin/montmorillonite composite phase change material for thermal energy storage [Solar Energy]

Synthesis and thermal properties of novel solid-solid phase change materials with comb-polyurethane block copolymer structure for thermal energy storage [Thermochimica Acta]

Synthesis and Properties of Polyurethane/Coal-Derived Carbon Foam Phase Change Composites for Thermal Energy Storage [Acta Physico-Chimica Sinica]

Patent application: Cables made of phase change material

Ben Welter - Monday, February 20, 2017

U.S. patent application 20170045301 (applicant E.I. Du Pont De Nemours and Co., Wilmington, Del.):

"Disclosed is a cable comprising a core and a PCM layer surrounding the core wherein the PCM layer consists of a PCM composition wherein the PCM composition comprises a PCM and an ethylene copolymer; and the core consists of a yarn, strand, or wire each made of a natural or synthetic polymeric material or a metal. The invention is useful for thermal management in a variety of applications in such as, for example, automotive, building, packaging, garments, and footwear."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20170045301.pdf

PCM briefing: Underground heat storage proposed for Hamburg; Solar Decathlon entry will have PCM in ceilings

Ben Welter - Wednesday, February 15, 2017

• The water utility in Hamburg, Germany, wants to build an underground thermal heat storage system that could supply about 25 percent of the city's heating needs with waste heat from industrial and power plants. A huge saltwater aquifer below the city is seen as an ideal "thermal battery" in which to store heat for use in winter.

• The University of Nevada-Las Vegas entry in the 2017 Solar Decathlon will feature phase change material in the ceilings of the 900-square-foot home.

Sonoco has announced a 10 percent price increase on all expanded polystyrene components used in its temperature-assurance packaging products. The company said the increase reflects the rising cost of polystyrene, the key raw material in EPS products.

University of Colorado engineers have developed a metamaterial that can cool objects even under direct sunlight with zero energy and water consumption. The glass-polymer hybrid material measures just 50 micrometers thick and can be manufactured economically on rolls, making it potentially viable for large-scale residential and commercial applications.

StoCalce Functio, a wall covering material developed by the Swiss research institute Empa together with the building specialist Sto, manages interior humidity by absorbing, storing and releasing moisture. Perhaps PCMs could be added to the material to manage temperatures as well. [German]

Alexium International, maker of Alexicool phase change material, is one of nine companies planning to attend Gabelli & Company's 8th annual Specialty Chemicals Conference in New York City on March 22.

Axiom Exergy co-founders Anthony Diamond and Amrit Robbins, who made Forbes' "30 Under 30" in the energy sector this year, shared advice for other young entrepreneurs on energy.gov. Said Robbins: “If you want to build a business, go out and get third party validation for your technology, team and product-market fit."

Research roundup: New way to measure specific heat capacity; PCM underfloor heating; metal foams; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, February 14, 2017

New proposed methodology for specific heat capacity determination of materials for thermal energy storage (TES) by DSC [Journal of Energy Storage]

Thermal diffusivity measurement of erythritol and numerical analysis of heat storage performance on a fin-type heat exchanger [Applied Thermal Engineering]

Benefits of PCM underfloor heating with PCM wallboards for space heating in winter [Applied Energy]

Non-steady experimental investigation on an integrated thermal management system for power battery with phase change materials [Energy Conversion and Management]

Experimental investigation on heat transfer characteristics during melting of a phase change material with dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles in a rectangular enclosure [International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer]

Numerical method and model for calculating thermal storage time for an annular tube with phase change material [Journal of Central South Florida]

Stratified Laboratory Thermal Energy Storage (LabTES) Tank Experiments: Sensible Only and Sensible Augmented with PCM-Filled Tubes [University of Cincinnati master's thesis]

Development and optimization of PCM-based technology for cooling applications for improvement of fuel efficiency in commercial vehicle [SAE World Congress Experience]

Establishment and experimental verification of TRNSYS model for PCM floor coupled with solar water heating system [Energy and Buildings]

Thermal Performance Enhancement of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) by Using Metal Foams [Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences]

PCM briefing: New denim features phase change material; Sasol 'back on the expansion trail'

Ben Welter - Monday, February 06, 2017

• Thinking about attending BiobasedWorld 2017 in Cologne, Germany, this month? Sorry, the trade show was canceled a few months ago due to the industry's "challenging economic environment." A related show is on the horizon: Bio-Based Live Europe in Amsterdam, May 31-June 1. The focus will be on "Process Innovation and Technology" and "Sustainable Products." Speakers include Freek Snieders, managing director, Croda International; and Jean Luc Dubois, scientific director, Arkema.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory takes a look at how University of Michigan researchers used a Cray XK7 Titan supercomputer to study melting in two-dimensional systems. Deeper understanding of the process, Oak Ridge says, "could yield insights into surface interactions in materials important to technologies like solar panels, as well as into the mechanism behind three-dimensional melting." 

• The cold chain packaging class developed by Sonoco ThermoSafe’s ISC Labs will be offered at the Cold Chain GDP & Temperature Management Logistics Global Forum in San Diego in May. The all-day session on May 25 will cover the design, development and qualification of temperature-controlled packaging. The conference agenda is available for download.

Biznews.com reports that chemicals giant Sasol is "back on the expansion trail, seeking out suitable acquisitions."

• Among the new fabrics on display at the Munich Fabric Start trade show this week: Cordura denim combined with Schoeller phase change material. 

• The University of the West of England has installed two Monodraught Cool-Phase hybrid units in the university's Estates Management Office in Bristol. Monodraught says its PCM-equipped systems have been shown to "use up to 90% less energy than traditional a/c systems."  

• The 12th Conference on Advanced Building Skins, scheduled for Oct. 2-3 in Bern, Switzerland, has issued a call for papers. Possible topics include financial models, new products, advanced design and building performance. The deadline is Feb. 10. 

Pelican BioThermal has announced that its new passive pallet shipper system, CrÄ“do Cargo, is now available to rent or buy. The reusable bulk shipper uses phase change material cooling panels to maintain temperature ranges +2C to +8C and +15C to +25C. 

Drexel professor looking for partners to scale up de-icing material

Ben Welter - Tuesday, January 31, 2017

Dr. Yaghoob Farnam, an assistant professor in Drexel University’s College of Engineering, knows that harsh winters pose a significant challenge for the folks who design, build and maintain roads. In an interview with Drexel's News Blog this week, he shared some background on his research:

"One of the things that my research group has been looking for is better options for deicing. We are designing special types of phase change material — like paraffin wax or vegetable oil — that can be used to expedite the snow/ice melting process. Right now we have lab-scale work that is very promising. We have proven that these materials can melt about two inches of snow and they will stay in the pavement for longer periods of time, which saves the labor of reapplying it before every snow/ice event. Imagine how much salt and snow plowing could be avoided! By keeping the snow and ice from sitting on the road surface, the phase change materials could also reduce damage from freeze-thaw cycles.

"We are reaching out to local departments of transportation, as well as the Federal Aviation Administration, as possible research partners who could help support full-scale outdoor testing — and benefit from the findings."

https://newsblog.drexel.edu/2017/01/26/qa-how-do-winters-mood-swings-affect-our-roads/

Research roundup: Accumulation panels and thermoelectric cooling; flat-plate and triplex-tube heat exchangers; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, January 24, 2017

State-of-the-Art for the use of Phase-Change Materials in Tanks Coupled with Heat Pumps [Energy and Buildings]

Phase Change Material Based Accumulation Panels in Combination with Renewable Energy Sources and Thermoelectric Cooling [Energies]

A phenomenological approach of solidification of polymeric phase change materials [Journal of Applied Physics]

Analysis of the thermal performance of flat plate PCM heat exchangers for heating systems [Applied Thermal Engineering]

Numerical investigation of a triplex tube heat exchanger with phase change material: Simultaneous charging and discharging [Energy and Buildings]

Empirical Validation of Heat Transfer Performance Simulation of Graphite/PCM Concrete Materials for Thermally Activated Building System [pdf] [International Journal of Polymer Science]

Patent application: Stadium ambient temperature control system

Ben Welter - Tuesday, January 10, 2017

Stadium ambient seating patent drawingU.S. patent application 20170003042 (applicant Henderson Engineers Inc., Lenexa, Kansas):

"A system for controlling ambient temperatures of exposed structures using phase change materials and/or tempered liquid delivery systems. Phase change materials may be fabricated to hold the surrounding temperature at a desired temperature, such as 70 degrees Fahrenheit / 21 degrees Celsius. As the heat load rises above this desired temperature, the heat is absorbed into the phase change material until that material has completely transitioned through its phase change, after which it will no longer absorb heat load. As the temperature then cools off at night, the heat is released from the phase change material, and the material changes back into its original phase. Phase change material may be placed within or on the exterior of stadium chairs. A liquid piping system may also be used to provide ambient heat control, including liquid piping for piping temperature-controlled liquid throughout the stadium while preventing condensation."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20170003042.pdf