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The award-winning Phase Change Matters blog tracks the latest news and research on phase change materials and thermal energy storage. E-mail tips and comments to Ben Welter, communications director at Entropy Solutions. Follow the blog on Twitter at @PureTemp. Subscribe to the weekly PCM newsletter. Or join the discussion on LinkedIn.

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Research roundup: Fabrication of shape-stable composite PCMs; battery thermal management; segmented heat storage; more

Ben Welter - Wednesday, April 18, 2018

Fabrication of shape-stable composite phase change materials based on lauric acid and graphene/graphene oxide complex aerogels for enhancement of thermal energy storage and electrical conduction [Thermochimica Acta]

Performance analysis of PCM based thermal energy storage system containing nanoparticles [International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology]

Cold temperature performance of phase change material based battery thermal management systems [Energy Reports]

Design and functionality of a segmented heat-storage prototype utilizing stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate in a solar heating system [Applied Energy]

Macro-encapsulation and characterization of chloride based inorganic phase change materials for high temperature thermal energy storage systems [Applied Energy]

Parametric analysis of a residential building with phase change material (PCM)-enhanced drywall, precooling, and variable electric rates in a hot and dry climate [Applied Energy]

Fabrication of high thermal conductive shape-stabilized polyethylene glycol/silica phase change composite by two-step sol gel method [Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing]

Performance enhancement of cold thermal energy storage system using nanofluid phase change materials: A review [International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer]

Development of form stable Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) coated thermal phase change material for solar water heater applications [4th International Conference on Civil and Environmental Engineering for Sustainability]

Research roundup: Microcapsule with SiO2-TiO2 hybrid shell; finned rectangular enclosures; glazed roof with PCM; more

Ben Welter - Wednesday, April 11, 2018

Synthesis and properties of phase change microcapsule with SiO2-TiO2 hybrid shell [Solar Energy]

Experimental investigation of melting behaviour of phase change material in finned rectangular enclosures under different inclination angles [Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science]

Phase change material based cooling of photovoltaic panel: A simplified numerical model for the optimization of the phase change material layer and general economic evaluation [Journal of Cleaner Production]

Influence of glazed roof containing phase change material on indoor thermal environment and energy consumption [Applied Energy]

Thermal field and heat storage in a cyclic phase change process caused by several moving melting and solidification interfaces in the layer [International Journal of Thermal Sciences]

A phase change microactuator based on paraffin wax/expanded graphite/nickel particle composite with induction heating [Sensors and Actuators A: Physical]

Research roundup: Solar thermal façades; domestic hot water system; triplex-tube heat exchanger; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, April 10, 2018

Overheating protection of solar thermal façades with latent heat storages based on paraffin-polymer compounds [Energy and Buildings]

Single and combined phase change materials: Their effect on seasonal transition period [Energy and Buildings]

Macroencapsulation of sodium chloride as phase change materials for thermal energy storage [Solar Energy]

Investigation of PCM Charging for the Energy Saving of Domestic Hot Water System [Applied Thermal Engineering]

Physical and mechanical properties of fly ash and slag geopolymer concrete containing different types of micro-encapsulated phase change materials [Construction and Building Materials]

Accelerated melting of PCM in energy storage systems via novel configuration of fins in the triplex-tube heat exchanger [International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer]

Swedish university developing PCM/TES design tool for buildings

Ben Welter - Monday, April 09, 2018

Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden are developing a design tool for PCM-based thermal energy storage for heating and cooling of buildings.

The project is being conducted by the Division of Building Technology within the university's Architecture and Civil Engineering Department. Sweden's Environmental Protection Agency and Energy Agency and the university are jointly funding the effort.

To better understand the needs of potential users of the tool, the research team is inviting professionals in the building sector – such as real estate owners, energy consultants, PCM producers and specifying engineers – to participate in a survey, whether or not they have PCM experience. The survey can be completed in 10 to 15 minutes. Personal data will be kept confidential. Participants who wish to receive the findings of the survey are asked to provide their email address at the end of the questionnaire.

For more information on the project, contact Dr. Nikolaos Stathopoulos, nikstat[at]chalmers.se.

https://goo.gl/forms/iEYCD5zIDUlDW5eu1

Research roundup: PCM-based radiant heat exchanger; thermal performance of PCM roof modules; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, April 03, 2018

Design and Analysis of PCM Based Radiant Heat Exchanger for Thermal Management of Buildings [Energy and Buildings]

A new ventilated window with PCM heat exchanger – performance analysis and design optimization [Energy and Buildings]

Thermal enhancement of paraffin/hydrophobic expanded perlite granular phase change composite using graphene nanoplatelets [Energy and Buildings]

Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material (mPCM) in Roof Modules during Daily Operation [Energies]

Synthesis and Characterization of Thermochemical Storage Material Combining Porous Zeolite and Inorganic Salts [Heat Transfer Engineering]

Effect of percussion vibration on solidification of supercooled salt hydrate PCM in thermal storage unit [Renewable Energy]

A review of the applications of phase change materials in cooling, heating and power generation in different temperature ranges [Applied Energy]

Experimental and numerical study on the performance of a new high-temperature packed-bed thermal energy storage system with macroencapsulation of molten salt phase change material [Applied Energy]

Energy and exergy efficiencies assessment for a stratified cold thermal energy storage [Applied Energy]

Eccentricity optimization of a horizontal shell-and-tube latent-heat thermal energy storage unit based on melting and melting-solidifying performance [Applied Energy]

Numerical study on the thermal performance of lightweight temporary building integrated with phase change materials [Applied Thermal Engineering]

Thiol-yne photo-clickable electrospun phase change materials for thermal energy storage [Reactive and Functional Polymers]

Highly Graphitized 3D Network Carbon for Shape-stabilized Composite PCMs with Superior Thermal Energy Harvesting [Nano Energy]

Schematic illustration of PEG8000 @ CQDs-derived 3D porous carbon composite PCMs

Patent application: Spherical microcapsule

Ben Welter - Monday, April 02, 2018

U.S. patent application 20180085724 (applicant Holcim Technology Ltd., Jona, Switzerland):

"A method for the production of a microcapsule, in particular a microcapsule of spherical shape having a hollow capsule space therein, includes the steps of: a) preparing of a suspension of particulate cementitious material in a solvent b) preparing a dispersion by mixing the suspension of step a) with an immiscible fluid so that (i) the suspension is present as a dispersed phase in the fluid as a dispersion medium or that (ii) the fluid is present as the dispersed phase in the suspension as the dispersion medium, such that the particulate material of the suspension adsorbs at least partially at a phase boundary between the fluid and the suspension, and c) allowing the particulate material adsorbed at the phase boundary to hydrate with the formation of a microcapsule. ... [The microcapsule] is at least partially filled with a salt, a polymer, a drug, a biomolecule, a cell, a living cell, a fragrance, a flavor, enzymes, catalytic materials, flame retarders, phase change materials, absorbers and/or a dye."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20180085724.pdf

Work continues on effort to add PCM products to California energy code

Ben Welter - Friday, March 16, 2018

At its meeting earlier this month, the RAL Quality Association PCM discussed an update on an initiative to include phase change material in the Building Efficiency Standards contained in the California Code of Regulations.

The update, provided by Jeremiah Crossett, chief technology officer of NRGsim Inc., outlined the initiative’s timeline and cost projections.

Crossett is developing a database of PCM products and performing a detailed modeling study on a variety of PCM products in all California climate zones. The goal is to build a persuasive case for including PCMs in the next version of the standards, to be published in 2019.

Manufacturers of PCM building products are invited to submit products to Crossett for inclusion in the database. One or two products can be submitted for $2,000; an unlimited number can be submitted for $5,000. For Crossett’s modeling study, $2,000 covers one or two products; $5,000 covers an unlimited number.

Crossett hopes to complete work on the initiative by next winter. He said Insolcorp, which installs PCM building products in California, Nevada and other states, has been covering the costs. He asked if any members of the RAL Quality Association PCM would be interested in co-funding the initiative. Members suggested that the new PCM Industry Association of North America would be a better audience for that question. Companies interested in participating can contact Crossett at jcrossett@nrgsim.com.

PCM briefing: Thermal storage in focus at Energy Storage Europe; SaltX, Ahlstrom-Munksjö to develop insulation paper

Ben Welter - Monday, March 12, 2018

• "Life Cycle Assessment of Thermal Energy Storage Materials, Components and System Concepts" (Björn Nienborg, Fraunhofer ISE) and "Development of PCM Based on the Prediction of Phase Diagrams of Salt Hydrate Mixtures" (Christoph Rathgeber, ZAE Bayern) are among more than a dozen presentations on thermal storage at this week's Energy Storage Europe expo and conference in Düsseldorf, Germany.

• The energy storage company SaltX Technology will collaborate with specialty paper producer Ahlstrom-Munksjö to develop a large-scale manufacturing method for graphene-coated insulation paper. The paper will carry SaltX's patented nano coated salt, increasing the heat conductivity of the SaltX material by up to five times. 

• The March 2018 issue of the CIBSE Journal features a continuing professional development module sponsored by Monodraught: "Operating and enhancing PCM-cooled ventilation systems in office applications.

• New from Persistence Market Research: "Advanced Phase Change Material (PCM) Market - Global Industry Analysis and Forecast to 2020" and "Global Insulated Shipping Containers Market Research Report 2018"

• New from QYResearch: "Global Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Industry 2018 Market Research Report"

• Registration is open for an Industrial Fabrics Association International webinar on recent smart fabric applications used in a number of government, commercial, medical and consumer market segments. The cost for the March 15 webinar, initially presented in January, is $29 for association members, $79 for non-members. 

Arizona State University researchers have shed new light on the anomalous properties of water, using specially treated water mixed with another chemical. "As they changed the temperature at high pressures," Gizmodo reports, "they noticed a sharp change in the water's molecular behaviour as it seemed to change phases - from a liquid to a liquid."  

• The first Lego blocks made from plant-based plastic sourced from sugar cane will go on sale later this year. Lego’s current blocks are made from oil-based plastics.

• The U.S. Department of Agriculture is seeking bids to replace a chiller at the department's Washington, D.C., headquarters. The chiller was originally installed in 1995 to make ice at night for a thermal energy storage system.

Sunamp Ltd. is among 35 finalists preparing to pitch to investors at Cleantech Innovate in London on March 20.

GTI, a not-for-profit research organization based in Illinois, has been invited to present its hybrid solar energy system project at ARPA-E's Congressional Showcase March 12. The system stores thermal energy in inert particles for on-demand use.

For Melbourne family, PCM ceiling mats ‘worth the investment’

Ben Welter - Monday, March 05, 2018

A recent two-story addition to a bungalow in suburban Melbourne, Australia, uses bio-based phase change material as a lightweight alternative to thermal mass.

Interior of Playtime HousePhase Change Energy Solutions BioPCM mats containing about 270 kilograms of phase change material were installed above the ceilings, according to architect Penny Guild of Guild Architects. The PCM has a melting point of 24 degrees C. In an e-mail interview, Guild talked about PCM use in the Playtime House project.

Q: What are the projected energy savings related to PCM use in this project?

A: “We didn’t do any specific calculations, but the manufacturer claims between 40 to 80 percent saving in energy bills. The amount of PCM that was put in the project equates to 10kw hours.”

Q: Have you worked with PCM products in the past? Are there plans to use PCM in future projects?

A: “It’s relatively new for the residential market in Australia so I haven’t used it before. The upfront costs are reasonably high, and being a new product there’s not many people that potential clients can turn for advice on its effectiveness. They can’t just ask a friend ‘did you think the PCM was good value in your house’ because no one else has used it. The clients on this project had a high degree of environmental consciousness and both had a science background of some sort (doctor and teacher) and they felt confidant enough it was worth the investment. As the project was an extension above an existing structure adding traditional heavy mass materials was basically impossible which is where the PCM came in.”

http://www.guildarchitects.com.au/northcote-house/

http://futurist--architecture.blogspot.no/2018/01/playtime-house-in-northcote.html

Research roundup: Thermal protective clothing; nanosilica-enhanced PCM; active-passive ventilation wall; more

Ben Welter - Wednesday, February 28, 2018

Reversible thermochromic microencapsulated phase change materials for thermal energy storage application in thermal protective clothing [Applied Energy]

Micro encapsulated & form-stable phase change materials for high temperature thermal energy storage [Applied Energy]

Thermal performance of an active-passive ventilation wall with phase change material in solar greenhouses [Applied Energy]

A novel nanosilica-enhanced phase change material with anti-leakage and anti-volume-changes properties for battery thermal management [Energy Conversion and Management]

Synthetic Comb-Like Phase-Change Material Poly(Acrylonitrile-co-Lauric Acid) Copolymer for Low Temperature Energy Management [Materials Science Forum]

Fundamental incorporation of the density change during melting of a confined phase change material [Journal of Applied Physics]

Preliminary investigation of thermal behaviour of PCM based latent heat thermal energy storage [E3S Web of Conferences]