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The award-winning Phase Change Matters blog tracks the latest news and research on phase change materials and thermal energy storage. E-mail tips and comments to Ben Welter, communications director at Entropy Solutions. Follow the blog on Twitter at @PureTemp. Subscribe to the weekly PCM newsletter. Or join the discussion on LinkedIn.

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Patent application: Method for making PCM products and system therefor

Ben Welter - Thursday, July 18, 2019

U.S. patent application 20190217553 (inventor Peter Horwath, New London, N.C.):

Horwath patent drawing"A method for processing phase change material includes providing pieces of phase change material having a transition temperature, the pieces of phase change material being in a solid phase. A medium is provided which is transformable from a liquid state to a solid state, the medium is in the liquid state and at a temperature which is below the transition temperature of the pieces of phase change material. The pieces of phase change material are combined with the medium to form a mixture. The mixture is supplied to a tool which forms a phase change material product. The medium is then transformed to the solid state."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20190217553.pdf

Research roundup: Thermally conductive HDPE; pentaerythritol; RT44HC; epoxy resin composites; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, July 18, 2019

From Journal of Applied Polymer Science:

Thermally conductive high-density polyethylene as novel phase-change material: Application-relevant long-term stability
Reliable phase‐change polyurethane crosslinked by dynamic ionic‐bond crosslinking for thermal energy storage

From International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer:

A molecular dynamics study of the effects of crystalline structure transition on the thermal conductivity of pentaerythritol as a solid-solid phase change material
A comparative study of the effect of varying wall heat flux on melting characteristics of phase change material RT44HC in rectangular test cells
High thermal response rate and super low supercooling degree microencapsulated phase change materials (MEPCM) developed by optimizing shell with various nanoparticles

From Materials Research Express:

Evaluation of thermophysical properties of shaped inorganic hydrated salt-based phase change materials for wall energy storage

From Construction and Building Materials:

Measurement and analysis of thermophysical parameters of the epoxy resin composites shape-stabilized phase change material
Thermal enhanced cement-lime mortars with phase change materials (PCM), lightweight aggregate and cellulose fibers

From Energy and Buildings:

Properties of concretes enhanced with phase change materials for building applications

From Hong Kong Polytechnic University:

Development of encapsulation methods for organic-based phase change materials in water

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Recent developments in the synthesis of microencapsulated and nanoencapsulated phase change materials

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Experimental and modeling study on thermal performance of hydrated salt latent heat thermal energy storage system

From Energies:

Thermal Response of Mortar Panels with Different Forms of Macro-Encapsulated Phase Change Materials: A Finite Element Study

From Renewable Energy:

Influence of the location of discrete macro-encapsulated thermal energy storage on the performance of a double pass solar plate collector system

From IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science:

Simulation and Analysis of Fuel Tank Heat Exchanger Based on Phase Change Material
Simulation Analysis of Thermal Storage Process of Phase Change Energy Storage Materials

From Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects:

Synthesis of organic phase change materials by using carbon nanotubes as filler material

From Processes:

Preparation and Performance Analysis of Graphite Additive/Paraffin Composite Phase Change Materials

From International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction:

Thermoregulating and Hydrating Microcapsules: Contributions of Textile Technology in the Design of Wearable Products for Wheelchair Dependents

From Materials Today:

Experimental study on hybrid natural circulation type solar air heater with paraffin wax based thermal storage

From Thermal Science and Engineering Progress:

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Melting Characteristics of Phase Change Material-RT58

Research roundup: Foamed cement blocks; polyethylene glycol/wood flour composites; radiant ceiling panels; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, July 11, 2019

From Trends in Food Science & Technology:

Micro/nano-encapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) as emerging materials for the food industry

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

A foamed cement blocks with paraffin/expanded graphite composite phase change solar thermal absorption material
Solvent-free preparation of bio-based polyethylene glycol/wood flour composites as novel shape-stabilized phase change materials for solar thermal energy storage
Spray-graphitization as a protection method against corrosion by molten nitrate salts and molten salts based nanofluids for thermal energy storage applications
Preparation and characterization of microencapsulated phase change materials containing inorganic hydrated salt with silica shell for thermal energy storage
Enhancing thermal conductivity of paraffin wax 53–57 °C using expanded graphite

From Solar Energy:

Simultaneous charging and discharging of phase change materials: Development of correlation for liquid fraction

From Energy and Buildings:

Numerical study of the electrical load shift capability of a ground source heat pump system with phase change thermal storage

From International Conference on Materials, Environment, Mechanical and Industrial Systems:

Simulation-based analysis of the use of PCM and shading devices to improve the thermal comfort in buildings

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Experimental study of a pilot-scale fin-and-tube phase change material storage
On-demand Intermittent Ice Slurry Generation for Subzero Cold Thermal Energy Storage: Numerical Simulation and Performance Analysis
Atomistic modelling of water transport and adsorption mechanisms in silicoaluminophosphate for thermal energy storage

From Clima 2019, 13th REHVA World Congress:

Experimental comparison of radiant ceiling panels and ceiling panels containing phase change material (PCM)

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Review of stability and thermal conductivity enhancements for salt hydrates
Characterisation of promising phase change materials for high temperature thermal energy storage

From Journal of Cleaner Production:

Self-assembly of 3D-graphite block infiltrated phase change materials with increased thermal conductivity

From Sustainable Cities and Society:

Thermal Performance Difference of Phase Change Energy Storage Units Based on Tubular Macro-encapsulation

From Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews:

State-of-technology review of water-based closed seasonal thermal energy storage systems

From Applied Energy:

Thermal energy storage in district heating and cooling systems: A review

From Polymers:

Fabrication and Characterization of Novel Shape-Stabilized Phase Change Materials Based on P(TDA-co-HDA)/GO Composites 

Research roundup: Spent coffee grounds; tropical tree fruit oils; natural rubber composites; more

Ben Welter - Friday, July 05, 2019

From Chemosphere:

Spent coffee grounds as supporting materials to produce bio-composite PCM with natural waxes

From Biotechnology Reports:

Novel phase change materials for thermal energy storage: evaluation of tropical tree fruit oils

From Construction and Building Materials:

Compressive strength and hygric properties of concretes incorporating microencapsulated phase change material
Thermal enhanced cement-lime mortars with phase change materials (PCM), lightweight aggregate and cellulose fibers

From Case Studies in Thermal Engineering:

Optimal fin parameters used for enhancing the melting and solidification of phase-change material in a heat exchanger unite

From Materials Chemistry and Physics:

Porous geopolymer as a possible template for a phase change material

From Journal of Physics: Conference Series:

Thermophysical Characteristics of VCO-Soybean Oil Mixture as Phase Change Material (PCM) using T-History Method

From Rubber Chemistry and Technology:

Phase-Change Material: Natural Rubber Composites for Heat Storage Applications

From Powder Technology:

An enthalpy based discrete thermal modelling framework for particulate systems with phase change materials

From Chemistry Select:

Carbon Soot/n–carboxylic Acids Composites As Form‐stable Phase Change Materials For Thermal Energy Storage

From International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer:

Experimental study of thermo-physical properties and application of paraffin-carbon nanotubes composite phase change materials
High thermal response rate and super low supercooling degree microencapsulated phase change materials (MEPCM) developed by optimizing shell with various nanoparticles

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Design optimization of the phase change material integrated solar receiver: A numerical parametric study

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Synthesis and characterization of ditetradecyl succinate and dioctadecyl succinate as novel phase change materials for thermal energy storage

From Advanced Materials Interfaces:

Doubly Coated, Organic–Inorganic Paraffin Phase Change Materials: Zinc Oxide Coating of Hermetically Encapsulated Paraffins

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Heat transfer enhancement of charging and discharging of phase change materials and size optimization of a latent thermal energy storage system for solar cold storage application

Research roundup: Form-stable PCM; polyethylene glycol/quartz composites; fuzzy clustering; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, June 18, 2019

From Renewable Energy:

A N-octadecane/hierarchically Porous TiO2 Form-Stable PCM for Thermal Energy Storage

From International Journal of Energy Research:

Hybrid solar parabolic dish power plant and high‐temperature phase change material energy storage system

From Journal of Applied Polymer Science:

Thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of polyethylene glycol/quartz composites for phase change materials

From Journal of Cleaner Production:

Using fuzzy clustering and weighted cumulative probability distribution techniques for optimal design of phase change material thermal energy storage

From Construction and Building Materials:

Thermoregulation effect analysis of microencapsulated phase change thermoregulation agent for asphalt pavement

From Applied Energy:

Residential cooling using separated and coupled precooling and thermal energy storage strategies

Sunamp signs its first major UK contract

Ben Welter - Friday, June 07, 2019

Sunamp Ltd. has signed a memo of understanding to supply its PCM-based heat batteries to Fischer Future Heat under an original equipment manufacturer contract. Sunamp, based in Edinburgh, Scotland, says the deal involves "many thousands" of units and will be worth seven figures as sales ramp up. Leicester-based Fischer began selling the product, dubbed the Aquafficient, in February.

Andrew BissellIn an email interview, Sunamp CEO Andrew Bissell filled in a few details on the deal.

Q: Can you tell me about the PCM aspects of this product?

A: "Sunamp’s success in making a super-stable (40,000+ cycles tested) salt hydrate PCM (very energy dense) at 58C and combining it (in a highly insulated, cuboid enclosure) with a very high power heat exchanger (high power, high flow rate hot water) made a whole class of heat battery devices possible. Not least electric water heaters, with about 4x the energy density of a classic electric hot water tank and 5+ gallon per minute performance. A key innovation (patent pending around the details) was to use electric elements immersed inside the PCM to melt the PCM and charge the heat battery."

Q: What can you tell me about the manufacturing process?

A: "Because Aquafficient by Fischer Future Heat is based on Sunamp UniQ, it’s effectively been in production at Sunamp Factory for nearly a year. 

"By going down this OEM white label route, Fischer Future Heat could hit the ground running with Aquafficient - which they did! Sunamp’s manufacturing has had to scale already this year from 75 units a month to 75 units a week, with 75 a day on the near horizon. This to keep up with exponentially rising combined demand from Fischer, other OEMs, and large housing and regeneration projects.

“We keep scaling production and the demand keeps outpacing us! We're working really hard on scaling up production and appreciate our partners’ and their customers patience when they sometimes have to wait quite a number of weeks for the product they want.”

https://www.insider.co.uk/news/heat-storage-battery-pioneer-sunamp-16252849

PCM in stadium seating: For fans on the hot seat, it's a pretty cool idea

Ben Welter - Saturday, May 25, 2019

Dustin Schafer of Henderson EngineersDustin Schafer, senior vice president and director of engineering at Henderson Engineers of Lenexa, Kansas, first became familiar with phase change material when he read an ASHRAE article about conference room air conditioning.

The method struck him as a small-scale version of a stadium or arena. "From there," he says, "I began I began devising a plan for us to implement this into our large-scale venues we design." 

Schafer developed the idea of using PCM inside the hollow portions of seats and seating structures to keep open-air stadiums cooler on hot days. The concept underwent testing at Kansas State University and was awarded a U.S. patent, "Stadium Ambient Temperature Control System," in 2017. He is giving a presentation on the concept June 12 at an event sponsored by AIA Kansas City at the Center for Architecture & Design in Kansas City, Mo. In an email interview, he discussed the development process. 

Q: How long have you worked at your company?

A: "I joined Henderson in 2008 and have nearly 20 years of industry experience."

Q: Can you briefly describe the process of testing the concept?

A: "In looking to develop an innovative, cost effective, and energy efficient option, we began conducting research on the potential implementation of PCM on venue seats to increase the thermal mass in the space and extend the length of time occupants are comfortable. Essentially, the material could be frozen (the material we used has a freezing point of 70° F) prior to the event, then as the PCM reaches its melting point, it would absorb some of the heat brought on by the human and/or solar load, prolonging the time the space is comfortable for attendees.

Henderson patent application drawing"I led a team in conducting a variety of tests to determine the efficacy of this idea. We worked with Kansas State University and utilized their Institute for Environmental Research to complete our testing. We set up a lab that included actual stadium seats arranged in a layout consistent with typical venues. Each seat in the testing area had 10 pounds of PCM attached to the back and a dummy in the seat equipped with electric resistance heaters that produced an amount of heat equivalent to that of a human being. The layout also included suspended wires with thermocouples to create the temperature sensor array around the dummy occupant.

"We conducted two tests to evaluate the impact this technology could have, each with two test value temperatures, 90° F and 100° F. In both tests we took measurements in an environmental chamber that simulated different ambient conditions during an event and compared both a control chamber and a chamber with PCM attached to the chairs. The tests ran until the effect of PCM was no longer noticeable."

Q: Can you provide a summary of the test results?

A: "In our research, we determined that PCM could be an impactful option for open stadiums situated in mild climates where the night temperatures drop low enough to freeze the material. To have an even greater impact, application of PCM should be seriously considered in enclosed arenas. Because the HVAC system could be used to pre-charge the bowl and freeze the material, this application could be even more significant. Additionally, the cooling result could materially affect the peak load needs for the HVAC systems in these spaces, saving the owner on energy costs.

"We also identified areas where PCM would not make sense a part of the temperature control solution, such as in climates with high winds that would simply blow away the cooled air, areas where the temperature does not drop below 70° F and thus doesn’t allow the PCM to freeze, or areas where the temperature rises too far above the melting point prior to the event meaning the cooling effect is lost before it is needed. Finally, we’ve found it necessary to note that this process only impacts spaces that need to be cooled – it cannot be used in heating conditions.

"We determined that phase change material does have a significant and sustained impact on occupant comfort. While it is not the whole solution, it can be a meaningful portion of the overall answer."

Q: Can you provide information on the PCM used in testing?

A: "We used InsolCorp’s Infinite-R phase change material." 

Q: Is Henderson now working on any projects that include the use of PCMs in this manner?

A: "We are not working on any projects that include the use of PCM."

Q: What interests you most about the use of PCM in building and construction?

A: "It’s a sustainable solution that is relatively low cost. It’s not the end all, be all, but it’s a small step that can have a nice impact. Professional sports teams focus heavily on the fan experience and this is a difference maker when it comes to their in-venue comfort."

Research roundup: Night ventilation study; residential ice storage; fly ash and slag cement slurry; more

Ben Welter - Friday, May 24, 2019

From Building and Environment:

A parametric study of phase change material behaviour when used with night ventilation in different climatic zones

From Energy and Buildings:

Development and Evaluation of a Generalized Rule-Based Control Strategy for Residential Ice Storage Systems
Characterization of potassium carbonate salt hydrate for thermochemical energy storage in buildings

From International Journal of Energy Research:

Fly ash and slag cement slurry containing microencapsulated phase change materials

From Applied Energy:

Thermal response of annuli filled with metal foam for thermal energy storage: An experimental study
A scalable environmental thermal energy harvester based on solid/liquid phase-change materials

From International Journal of Hydrogen Energy:

Thermal management of metal hydride hydrogen storage reservoir using phase change materials

From Macromolecular Research:

Multiple Energy Harvesting Based on Reversed Temperature Difference Between Graphene Aerogel Filled Phase Change Materials

From Solar Energy:

Experimental studies on the effect of using phase change material in a salinity-gradient solar pond under a solar simulator

From Chemical Engineering Journal:

Thermal enhancement and shape stabilization of a phase-change energy-storage material via copper nanowire aerogel

From U.S. Office of Scientific and Technical Information:

Prototype Testing of Encapsulated Phase Change Material Thermal Energy Storage (EPCM-TES) for Concentrated Solar Power

From E3S Web of Conferences:

A PCM based cooling system for office buildings: a state of the art review

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Design of MtNS/SA microencapsulated phase change materials for enhancement of thermal energy storage performances: Effect of shell thickness

From Journal of Molecular Liquids:

Investigating the effects of hybrid nanoparticles on solid-liquid phase change process in a Y-shaped fin-assisted LHTESS by means of FEM

From Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews:

A review of microencapsulated and composite phase change materials: Alteration of strength and thermal properties of cement-based materials

PCM briefing: Axiotherm wins smarter E Award; update on Malta thermal battery project

Ben Welter - Friday, May 17, 2019

Axiotherm GmbH of Germany was among the winners at this year's smarter E Awards in Munich. Axiotherm was honored in the renewable energy category for kraftBoxx, a thermal energy storage system that uses phase change technology for heating and hot water. The company says kraftBoxx has a higher energy storage capacity than conventional heat and cold storage systems. KraftBoxx is a joint development with Klara Energy and Tuxhorn within the scope of the PCM-based HeatSel product line marketed by Axiotherm. 

China says it will raise tariffs on $60 billion of U.S. goods June 1, including palmitic acid, stearic acid and their salts and esters. The move is response to the U.S. tariff hike on $200 billion worth of Chinese goods that took effect on May 10.  

• In an interview with SolarPACES, Malta Inc. engineer Sebastian Freund provides an update on the Massachusetts company's plans to develop a standalone thermal storage battery using molten salts. “We plan to build a pilot plant with 10MW power and at least six hours of storage duration, depending on customer specifications,” Freund said. Malta hopes to attract enough investors over the next three years to complete an 80MWh thermal energy storage pilot.

Research roundup: High-conductivity nanomaterials; paper board packaging; battery thermal management; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, May 16, 2019

From Heat and Mass Transfer:

Experimental and numerical analysis of composite latent heat storage in cooling systems for power electronics

From Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology:

A robust, flexible superhydrophobic sheet fabricated by in situ growth of micro-nano-SiO2 particles from cured silicone rubber

From Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry:

High-conductivity nanomaterials for enhancing thermal performance of latent heat thermal energy storage systems

From Building Simulation:

Optimization and sensitivity analysis of design parameters for a ventilation system using phase change materials

From Journal of Packaging Technology and Research:

Thermal Analysis of Paper Board Packaging with Phase Change Material: A Numerical Study

From Energy Storage:

Thermal performance of battery thermal management system using composite matrix coupled with mini‐channel

From Phase Transitions:

A study on preparation and properties of carbon materials/myristic acid composite phase change thermal energy storage materials

From ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces:

Melamine Foam Supported Form-stable Phase Change Materials with Simultaneous Thermal Energy Storage and Shape Memory Property for Thermal Management of Electronic Devices

From International Conference on Thermal Engineering:

Performance Enhancement of Unitary and Packaged Air Conditioners With Phase Change Material
Performance Comparison of Different Phase Change Materials For Solar Cooking During off Sun Sunshine Hours
A Review on Enhancement of Thermophysical Properties of Paraffin Wax PCM With Nanomaterials
Nano-Enhanced PCMs for Low Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Systems and Passive Conditioning Applications

From Chemistry Select:

Designing Coconut Oil Encapsulated Poly(stearyl methacrylate‐co‐hydroxylethyl metacrylate) Based Microcapsule for Phase Change Materials

From Evolution in Polymer Technology Journal:

Enhancement of Thermo-Regulating Textile Materials Using Phase Change Material

From Materials Research Express:

Improved thermal characteristics of Ag nanoparticles dispersed myristic acid as composite for low temperature thermal energy storage

From Applied Energy:

On the performance of ground coupled seasonal thermal energy storage for heating and cooling: A Canadian context

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Thermal stability enhancement of d-mannitol for latent heat storage applications