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The award-winning Phase Change Matters blog tracks the latest news and research on phase change materials and thermal energy storage. E-mail tips and comments to Ben Welter, communications director at Entropy Solutions. Follow the blog on Twitter at @PureTemp. Subscribe to the weekly PCM newsletter. Or join the discussion on LinkedIn.

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Research roundup: Impact of doping on bonding energy hierarchy; battery thermal management; more

Ben Welter - Friday, September 07, 2018

From Journal of Applied Physics:

Impact of doping on bonding energy hierarchy and melting of phase change materials

From International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer:

Two zone model for mushy region of solid–liquid phase change based on Lattice Boltzmann method

From Applied Sciences:

Synthesis and Investigation of Thermal Properties of Highly Pure Carboxylic Fatty Esters to Be Used as PCM

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Fabrication of novel slurry containing graphene oxide-modified microencapsulated phase change material for direct absorption solar collector

From Buildings:

Potential of Thermal Energy Storage Using Coconut Oil for Air Temperature Control

From International Journal for Research in Engineering Application and Management:

Development of Phase Change Material/ Cooling Plate Coupled Battery Thermal Management System Using CFD

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

A novel graphite-PCM composite sphere with enhanced thermo-physical properties

From Journal of Cleaner Production:

Building-integrated solar thermal system with/without phase change material: Life cycle assessment based on ReCiPe, USEtox and Ecological footprint

From Thermal Science and Engineering Progress:

Role of metallic foam in heat storage in the presence of nanofluid and microencapsulated phase change material

From International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer:

Heat and flow analysis of a water droplet on hydrophobic and hydrophilic phase change material

Patent application: Moisture wicking and cooling capsules having an outer shell comprising a siloxane

Ben Welter - Thursday, August 30, 2018

U.S. patent application 20180242665 (applicant Microtek Laboratories Inc., Dayton, Ohio):

Microtek cooling capsule patent drawing"Microcapsules or macrocapsules have a core composition that includes a phase changing material (PCM) encapsulated within a polymer wall with an outer shell having a siloxane tethered to an exterior surface of the polymer wall by a surfactant. The siloxane may form a crystalline or a sol-gel outer shell. Methods of making such capsules and textile fabrics and clothing incorporating such capsules include treating pre-formed capsules with a surfactant solution followed by treating with a compound containing a siloxane functional group. The surfactant connects or tethers the siloxane to the exterior surface of the polymer wall and the siloxane forms an outer shell of the capsules."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20180242665.pdf

Research roundup: Shape-stable PCMs in building enclosures; eutectic fatty acid/damar gum; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, August 28, 2018

From Sustainable Cities and Society:

A review on applications of shape-stabilized phase change materials embedded in building enclosure in recent ten years

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Microencapsulation of eutectic and hyper-eutectic Al-Si alloy as phase change materials for high-temperature thermal energy storage

From Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics:

Thermal analysis and heat capacity study of polyethylene glycol (PEG) phase change materials for thermal energy storage applications

From Exergy for A Better Environment and Improved Sustainability:

Investigation of Thermal Characteristic of Eutectic Fatty Acid/Damar Gum as a Composite Phase Change Material (CPCM)

From Composites Part B: Engineering:

Fabrication, morphology and thermal properties of octadecylamine-grafted graphene oxide-modified phase-change microcapsules for thermal energy storage

From Chemical Engineering Transactions:

Study on the Temperature Characteristics of Phase-change Energy Storage Building Materials Based on ANSYS [pdf]

From International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies:

Free cooling using phase change material for buildings in hot-arid climate

From International Journal of Energy Research:

Experimental study on cold storage box with nanocomposite phase change material and vacuum insulation panel

PCM briefing: South African utility scraps CSP plant; Pelican BioThermal seeks Americas sales director

Ben Welter - Monday, August 27, 2018

• The second round of U.S. and China tariffs took effect last week, covering about $4.2 billion in chemicals and plastics. Based on 2017 exports to China, ICIS News says the U.S. commodity chemical products most affected are monoethylene glycol, styrene, EVA copolymers, linear low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and ethylene dichloride.

Dr. Joachim KuhnVa-Q-tec AG's management board has extended the contract of CEO Dr. Joachim Kuhn, the company's founder, through Dec. 31, 2023.

• The South African utility Eskom has decided to scrap development of the 100MW Kiwano concentrated solar power plant and instead invest the money in battery storage.

Pelican BioThermal has an opening for director of sales - Americas in the company's U.S. office in Plymouth, Minn. The director will "oversee all aspects of the growth and development of BioThermal market" in North and South America. Job candidates researching Peli may want to watch the company's latest videos, which show how to assemble the new CoolPall Flex temperature-controlled shipper.

NorthVolt has an opening for a thermal/mechanical design engineer for battery system development at the company's office in Stockholm, Sweden. NorthVolt is building one of the first European large-scale lithium-ion battery factories.

• New from TMR Research: "Thermal Energy Storage Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Trends, Analysis, Growth, and Forecast 2017 - 2025"

• New from QY Research: "Global Phase Change Materials (PCM) Market Professional Survey Report 2018"

• New from Reports and Markets: "Global Cold Chain Equipments Market Insights, Forecast to 2025"

• In an Imaginasium interview, Encapsys President Mary Goggans talks about the Appleton, Wis., microencapsulator's transition to a standalone company over the past two years.

Patent application: Encapsulation

Ben Welter - Thursday, August 23, 2018

U.S. patent application 20180235893 (Procter & Gamble Co., Cincinnati, Ohio):

"An improved process of making a benefit agent delivery particle and consumer products incorporating such particles are disclosed. The process comprises the steps of providing a first composition of water phase 1, water phase 2 and water phase 3. Water phase 1 comprises water and an initiator; water phase 2 comprises water, a water-soluble or dispersible amine(meth)acrylate or hydroxyl(meth)acrylate and a multifunctional (meth)acrylate. Water phase 3 comprises water, and carboxyalkyl(meth)acrylate and a base or quarternary ammonium acrylate. The first two water phases are combined to prereact the hydroxy- or amine(meth)acrylate and the multifunctional (meth)acrylate to form a multifunctional hydroxyl-amine(meth)acrylate pre-polymer. The pre-polymer is combined with water phase 3; then an emulsion is formed by emulsifying under high shear agitation a second composition into said first composition; said second composition comprising an oil phase comprising an isocyanate and a benefit agent core material thereby forming a wall surrounding the benefit agent core material."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20180235893.pdf

Research roundup: Microencapsulated paraffin; PCM plasterboard; palmitic acid ethyl ester; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, August 21, 2018

From Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science:

Thermal–hydraulic characteristics of ethylene glycol aqueous solutions containing microencapsulated paraffin

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Three-dimensional numerical and experimental investigation of the behavior of solar salts within thermal storage devices during phase change

From Renewable Energy:

Numerical investigation on the effect of different parameters in enhancing heat transfer performance of photovoltaic thermal systems

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Development of a calorific value controller using bimetal fin channel for PCM heat storage
Experimental and numerical investigation for improving the thermal performance of a microencapsulated phase change material plasterboard

From Polymers:

Fabrication and Performance of Composite Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials with Palmitic Acid Ethyl Ester as Core

From Cement and Concrete Composites:

Elucidating the influences of compliant microscale inclusions on the fracture behavior of cementitious composites

From AIP Conference Proceedings:

Simulation and validation of PCM melting in concentric double pipe heat exchanger
Modeling and experimental validation of the thermal behavior of PCM using DSC input data
Thermal behavior of melting paraffin wax process in cylindrical capsule by experimental study

From Energy and Buildings:

A novel building material with low thermal conductivity: Rapid synthesis of foam concrete reinforced silica aerogel and energy performance simulation

Research roundup: Dynamic behavior of PCM-27; Al2O3, SiO2 and TiO2 nano-inclusions; coacervation microencapsulation; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, August 14, 2018

From International Journal of Thermal Sciences:

An experimental and a numerical analysis of the dynamic behavior of PCM-27 included inside a vertical enclosure: Application in space heating purposes

From Journal of Molecular Liquids:

Thermal conductivity enhancement in organic phase change material (phenol-water system) upon addition of Al2O3, SiO2 and TiO2 nano-inclusions

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Experimental and numerical investigations of nano-additives enhanced paraffin in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger: A comparative study
Three-dimensional numerical and experimental investigation of the behavior of solar salts within thermal storage devices during phase change

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Formulation of a model predictive control algorithm to enhance the performance of a latent heat solar thermal system
Performance assessment of a new hydrogen cooled prismatic battery pack arrangement for hydrogen hybrid electric vehicles

From Carbohydrate Polymers:

Chitosan composite microencapsulated comb-like polymeric phase change material via coacervation microencapsulation

From Renewable Energy:

Analytical Considerations on Optimization of Cascaded Heat Transfer Process for Thermal Storage System with Principles of Thermodynamics

From Proceedings of Microscopy & Microanalysis 2018:

In-Situ TEM Observation of Crystallization in Phase-Change Material

From International Journal of Energy Research:

Patent application: Method for low-temperature microencapsulation of phase change material

Ben Welter - Sunday, August 12, 2018

U.S. patent application 20180223146 (inventors Mohammed Farid, Auckland, New Zealand, and Refat Al Shannaq, Shaheen Al-muhtaseb and Jamal Kurdi, Doha, Qatar):

Farid patent image"The method for low temperature microencapsulation of phase change materials or other components includes the following steps: (a) preparing a phase change emulsion including droplets of at least one active phase-change material in water with a surfactant; (b) adding a monomer of at least one encapsulating agent; (c) introducing the phase change emulsion into a UV reactor while stirring the emulsion; and (d) initiating the photo polymerization of monomers using at least one UV lamp inside the UV reactor for photo polymerization until the phase change material is encapsulated within a polymeric shell to form microcapsules. The microcapsules obtained by this process may have a diameter between about 0.5 to about 2 μm. Other sizes can also be obtained by changing stirring speed of the emulsion."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20180223146.pdf

Patent application: Encapsulates for phase change material

Ben Welter - Monday, August 06, 2018

U.S. patent application 20180215983 (applicant Encapsys LLC, Appleton, Wis.):

"The invention discloses a microencapsulated phase change material having a specific Thermal Efficiency Index (TEI). The composition of the invention comprises particles of a microencapsulated phase change material, the particles comprising a core and a shell that encapsulates the core, the shell comprising a polyurea obtained by polymerizing an isocyanate and an amine, prepared by (i) providing a water phase with an emulsifier, (ii) providing an internal phase of a core material and a multifunctional isocyanate soluble or dispersible in the internal phase, (iii) adding the internal phase to the water phase under high speed agitation to form an emulsion comprising droplets of the internal phase dispersed in the water phase and forming a first shell at an interface of the internal phase droplets and water phase mixture, and (iv) adding a multifunctional amine monomer to the emulsion thereby forming additional polyurea shell over the first shell at an interface of the internal phase droplets and water phase mixture. The resulting particles have a Thermal Efficiency Index greater than 0. Microcapsules according to the invention are highly effective at delivering enhanced thermal performance as compared to conventional microcapsules."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20180215983.pdf

Research roundup: Solar thermal modeling; finned multitube storage; solid-solid PCM: more

Ben Welter - Wednesday, August 01, 2018

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Modelling and experimental study of latent heat thermal energy storage with encapsulated PCMs for solar thermal applications

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Estimation of thermal performance and design optimization of finned multitube latent heat thermal energy storage

From Engineering Science and Technology:

Experimental study on heat transfer performance of neopentyl glycol/CuO composite solid-solid PCM in TES based heat sink

From Solar Energy:

Synthesis and characterization of stearic acid/silicon dioxide nanoencapsules for solar energy storage