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The award-winning Phase Change Matters blog tracks the latest news and research on phase change materials and thermal energy storage. E-mail tips and comments to Ben Welter, communications director at Entropy Solutions. Follow the blog on Twitter at @PureTemp. Subscribe to the weekly PCM newsletter. Or join the discussion on LinkedIn.




Research roundup: Concrete with shape-stable PCM; carbon nanotube laden with D-Mannitol; inorganic PCMs in metal capsules

Ben Welter - Thursday, September 20, 2018

From MATEC Web of Conferences:

Thermal Properties of Concrete Incorporated with Shape-stable Phase Change Material [pdf]

From Advanced Powder Technology:

Multi-walled carbon nanotube laden with D-Mannitol as phase change material: Characterization and experimental investigation

From Advances in Polymer Technology:

The influence of emulsifiers on preparation and properties of microencapsules of melamine–urea–formaldehyde resins with n‚Äźdodecanol as phase change material

From Materials:

Macro-Encapsulation of Inorganic Phase-Change Materials (PCM) in Metal Capsules

Patent application: Core-shell triggered release systems

Ben Welter - Tuesday, September 18, 2018

RTI core shell patent drawingU.S. patent application 20180258340 (applicant Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, N.C.):

"The present disclosure relates to delivery and release systems, such as core-shell particles. An exemplary composition according to the disclosure can include a carrier element forming an outer shell that defines an inner core. The core can include a reactive agent that is adapted to react with the shell, particularly at an inner interface of the shell with the core materials. The reaction can provide an inside-out degradation of the shell and release of one or more materials therein. The reactive agent may be separated from the shell, such as using a phase change material (PCM). Upon reaching specific environmental conditions, the PCM can change so as the release the reactive agent for reaction with the shell. The systems can be used in various methods to deliver a material to various environments, including underground reservoirs."

Research roundup: Heat capacities of potential organic PCMs; asphalt binders; novel smart textile; modeling hysteresis; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, September 18, 2018

From Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics:

Heat capacities of potential organic phase change materials

From Renewable Energy:

Effects of microencapsulated phase change materials on the performance of asphalt binders
An improved, generalized effective thermal conductivity method for rapid design of high temperature shell-and-tube latent heat thermal energy storage systems
Multi-objective optimisation of thermal energy storage using phase change materials for solar air systems

From Energy:

A comprehensive study of properties of paraffin phase change materials for solar thermal energy storage and thermal management applications
Evaluation of a novel solar driven sorption cooling/heating system integrated with PCM storage compartment

From Chemical Engineering Journal:

Shape-stabilized phase change materials based on porous supports for thermal energy storage applications
Novel smart textile with phase change materials encapsulated core-sheath structure fabricated by coaxial electrospinning

From International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer:

Experimental research on the effective heating strategies for a phase change material based power battery module
Modeling hysteresis in the phase transition of industrial-grade solid/liquid PCM for thermal energy storages

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Determination of heat transfer coefficients in direct contact latent heat storage systems

Research roundup: Impact of doping on bonding energy hierarchy; battery thermal management; more

Ben Welter - Friday, September 07, 2018

From Journal of Applied Physics:

Impact of doping on bonding energy hierarchy and melting of phase change materials

From International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer:

Two zone model for mushy region of solid–liquid phase change based on Lattice Boltzmann method

From Applied Sciences:

Synthesis and Investigation of Thermal Properties of Highly Pure Carboxylic Fatty Esters to Be Used as PCM

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Fabrication of novel slurry containing graphene oxide-modified microencapsulated phase change material for direct absorption solar collector

From Buildings:

Potential of Thermal Energy Storage Using Coconut Oil for Air Temperature Control

From International Journal for Research in Engineering Application and Management:

Development of Phase Change Material/ Cooling Plate Coupled Battery Thermal Management System Using CFD

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

A novel graphite-PCM composite sphere with enhanced thermo-physical properties

From Journal of Cleaner Production:

Building-integrated solar thermal system with/without phase change material: Life cycle assessment based on ReCiPe, USEtox and Ecological footprint

From Thermal Science and Engineering Progress:

Role of metallic foam in heat storage in the presence of nanofluid and microencapsulated phase change material

From International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer:

Heat and flow analysis of a water droplet on hydrophobic and hydrophilic phase change material

Patent application: Moisture wicking and cooling capsules having an outer shell comprising a siloxane

Ben Welter - Thursday, August 30, 2018

U.S. patent application 20180242665 (applicant Microtek Laboratories Inc., Dayton, Ohio):

Microtek cooling capsule patent drawing"Microcapsules or macrocapsules have a core composition that includes a phase changing material (PCM) encapsulated within a polymer wall with an outer shell having a siloxane tethered to an exterior surface of the polymer wall by a surfactant. The siloxane may form a crystalline or a sol-gel outer shell. Methods of making such capsules and textile fabrics and clothing incorporating such capsules include treating pre-formed capsules with a surfactant solution followed by treating with a compound containing a siloxane functional group. The surfactant connects or tethers the siloxane to the exterior surface of the polymer wall and the siloxane forms an outer shell of the capsules."

Research roundup: Shape-stable PCMs in building enclosures; eutectic fatty acid/damar gum; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, August 28, 2018

From Sustainable Cities and Society:

A review on applications of shape-stabilized phase change materials embedded in building enclosure in recent ten years

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Microencapsulation of eutectic and hyper-eutectic Al-Si alloy as phase change materials for high-temperature thermal energy storage

From Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics:

Thermal analysis and heat capacity study of polyethylene glycol (PEG) phase change materials for thermal energy storage applications

From Exergy for A Better Environment and Improved Sustainability:

Investigation of Thermal Characteristic of Eutectic Fatty Acid/Damar Gum as a Composite Phase Change Material (CPCM)

From Composites Part B: Engineering:

Fabrication, morphology and thermal properties of octadecylamine-grafted graphene oxide-modified phase-change microcapsules for thermal energy storage

From Chemical Engineering Transactions:

Study on the Temperature Characteristics of Phase-change Energy Storage Building Materials Based on ANSYS [pdf]

From International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies:

Free cooling using phase change material for buildings in hot-arid climate

From International Journal of Energy Research:

Experimental study on cold storage box with nanocomposite phase change material and vacuum insulation panel

PCM briefing: South African utility scraps CSP plant; Pelican BioThermal seeks Americas sales director

Ben Welter - Monday, August 27, 2018

• The second round of U.S. and China tariffs took effect last week, covering about $4.2 billion in chemicals and plastics. Based on 2017 exports to China, ICIS News says the U.S. commodity chemical products most affected are monoethylene glycol, styrene, EVA copolymers, linear low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and ethylene dichloride.

Dr. Joachim KuhnVa-Q-tec AG's management board has extended the contract of CEO Dr. Joachim Kuhn, the company's founder, through Dec. 31, 2023.

• The South African utility Eskom has decided to scrap development of the 100MW Kiwano concentrated solar power plant and instead invest the money in battery storage.

Pelican BioThermal has an opening for director of sales - Americas in the company's U.S. office in Plymouth, Minn. The director will "oversee all aspects of the growth and development of BioThermal market" in North and South America. Job candidates researching Peli may want to watch the company's latest videos, which show how to assemble the new CoolPall Flex temperature-controlled shipper.

NorthVolt has an opening for a thermal/mechanical design engineer for battery system development at the company's office in Stockholm, Sweden. NorthVolt is building one of the first European large-scale lithium-ion battery factories.

• New from TMR Research: "Thermal Energy Storage Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Trends, Analysis, Growth, and Forecast 2017 - 2025"

• New from QY Research: "Global Phase Change Materials (PCM) Market Professional Survey Report 2018"

• New from Reports and Markets: "Global Cold Chain Equipments Market Insights, Forecast to 2025"

• In an Imaginasium interview, Encapsys President Mary Goggans talks about the Appleton, Wis., microencapsulator's transition to a standalone company over the past two years.

Patent application: Encapsulation

Ben Welter - Thursday, August 23, 2018

U.S. patent application 20180235893 (Procter & Gamble Co., Cincinnati, Ohio):

"An improved process of making a benefit agent delivery particle and consumer products incorporating such particles are disclosed. The process comprises the steps of providing a first composition of water phase 1, water phase 2 and water phase 3. Water phase 1 comprises water and an initiator; water phase 2 comprises water, a water-soluble or dispersible amine(meth)acrylate or hydroxyl(meth)acrylate and a multifunctional (meth)acrylate. Water phase 3 comprises water, and carboxyalkyl(meth)acrylate and a base or quarternary ammonium acrylate. The first two water phases are combined to prereact the hydroxy- or amine(meth)acrylate and the multifunctional (meth)acrylate to form a multifunctional hydroxyl-amine(meth)acrylate pre-polymer. The pre-polymer is combined with water phase 3; then an emulsion is formed by emulsifying under high shear agitation a second composition into said first composition; said second composition comprising an oil phase comprising an isocyanate and a benefit agent core material thereby forming a wall surrounding the benefit agent core material."

Research roundup: Microencapsulated paraffin; PCM plasterboard; palmitic acid ethyl ester; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, August 21, 2018

From Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science:

Thermal–hydraulic characteristics of ethylene glycol aqueous solutions containing microencapsulated paraffin

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Three-dimensional numerical and experimental investigation of the behavior of solar salts within thermal storage devices during phase change

From Renewable Energy:

Numerical investigation on the effect of different parameters in enhancing heat transfer performance of photovoltaic thermal systems

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Development of a calorific value controller using bimetal fin channel for PCM heat storage
Experimental and numerical investigation for improving the thermal performance of a microencapsulated phase change material plasterboard

From Polymers:

Fabrication and Performance of Composite Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials with Palmitic Acid Ethyl Ester as Core

From Cement and Concrete Composites:

Elucidating the influences of compliant microscale inclusions on the fracture behavior of cementitious composites

From AIP Conference Proceedings:

Simulation and validation of PCM melting in concentric double pipe heat exchanger
Modeling and experimental validation of the thermal behavior of PCM using DSC input data
Thermal behavior of melting paraffin wax process in cylindrical capsule by experimental study

From Energy and Buildings:

A novel building material with low thermal conductivity: Rapid synthesis of foam concrete reinforced silica aerogel and energy performance simulation

Research roundup: Dynamic behavior of PCM-27; Al2O3, SiO2 and TiO2 nano-inclusions; coacervation microencapsulation; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, August 14, 2018

From International Journal of Thermal Sciences:

An experimental and a numerical analysis of the dynamic behavior of PCM-27 included inside a vertical enclosure: Application in space heating purposes

From Journal of Molecular Liquids:

Thermal conductivity enhancement in organic phase change material (phenol-water system) upon addition of Al2O3, SiO2 and TiO2 nano-inclusions

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Experimental and numerical investigations of nano-additives enhanced paraffin in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger: A comparative study
Three-dimensional numerical and experimental investigation of the behavior of solar salts within thermal storage devices during phase change

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Formulation of a model predictive control algorithm to enhance the performance of a latent heat solar thermal system
Performance assessment of a new hydrogen cooled prismatic battery pack arrangement for hydrogen hybrid electric vehicles

From Carbohydrate Polymers:

Chitosan composite microencapsulated comb-like polymeric phase change material via coacervation microencapsulation

From Renewable Energy:

Analytical Considerations on Optimization of Cascaded Heat Transfer Process for Thermal Storage System with Principles of Thermodynamics

From Proceedings of Microscopy & Microanalysis 2018:

In-Situ TEM Observation of Crystallization in Phase-Change Material

From International Journal of Energy Research: