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The award-winning Phase Change Matters blog tracks the latest news and research on phase change materials and thermal energy storage. E-mail tips and comments to Ben Welter, communications director at Entropy Solutions. Follow the blog on Twitter at @PureTemp. Subscribe to the weekly PCM newsletter. Or join the discussion on LinkedIn.




PCM briefing: Sunamp among 'Scottish tech companies to watch' in 2019; C-Therm webinar on new thermal conductivity instrument

Ben Welter - Monday, January 07, 2019

Rail shipping container with PCM

• The University of Birmingham's Center for Energy Storage has teamed up with a Chinese railway equipment manufacturer to develop a shipping container that uses phase change materials to maintain a low temperature over several days without a power supply. "Once ‘charged’, PCM inside the container - which can be transferred from train to truck and vice versa - can keep the inside temperature between 5-12 ˚C for up to 120 hours," the university reports.

CNET's Scott Stein takes a close look at PowerStation, "a battery of sorts that can keep a low-power sensor running off the temperature differences in everyday weather conditions." The device, made by Matrix Industries of Menlo Park, Calif., stores heat in a substance the company calls "Luna Phase Change Material" and later releases the heat in the form of electricity.

Scottish Business Insider has named Sunamp Ltd. one of five Scottish tech companies to watch in 2019. "The £2.2m raised in its latest fundraising sets the company up for a Series A round in 2019 as it looks to expand its international footprint and further scale its operations," Insider writes. "Sunamp heat batteries have so far been installed in over a thousand homes across the UK." 

C-Therm managing director Adam Harris is hosting a webinar this week to introduce the company's new thermal conductivity instrument, the C-Therm Trident. Advance registration is required for the webinar, which will be held at 1 p.m. EST Thursday, Jan. 10.

• At a business summit in Wisconsin last month, Encapsys President Mary Goggans said the Appleton-based company offers internships to students at regional colleges, including the children of employees. “The interns see the jobs and technologies they are interested in right here in the area,” Goggans said. “They realize they don’t need to get a job outside of the region to have the career they are looking for.”

Research roundup: Solidification/subcooling in spherical capsule; cement-based thermal storage; heat transfer in flexible container; more

Ben Welter - Friday, December 21, 2018

From International Journal of Refrigeration:

Experimental studies on solidification and subcooling characteristics of water-based phase change material (PCM) in a spherical encapsulation for cool thermal energy storage applications

From Construction and Building Materials:

Thermal energy storage characterization of cement-based systems containing microencapsulated-PCMs

From Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews:

Seasonal thermal energy storage system for cold climate zones: A review of recent developments

From Heat and Mass Transfer:

Analysis of heat transfer in latent heat thermal energy storage using a flexible PCM container

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Plate type heat exchanger for thermal energy storage and load shifting using phase change material

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Experimental studies on the charging performance of single-tank single-medium thermal energy storage
Investigation of thermal energy storage properties of a microencapsulated phase change material using response surface experimental design methodology
Financial and energetic evaluation of solar-assisted heat pump underfloor heating systems with phase change materials

From IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering:

Thermal Performance Through the Use of Radiant Barrier and Phase Change Material in Concrete Flat Roofs

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Synthesis of novel form-stable composite phase change materials with modified graphene aerogel for solar energy conversion and storage

From International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer:

Development of vacuum impregnation equipment and preparation of mass/uniform shape-stabilized phase change materials

Research roundup: Dynamic building envelope; multilayer glazing facades; spherical capsule with pin-fins; more

Ben Welter - Wednesday, December 05, 2018

From Applied Energy:

Form-stable and thermally induced flexible composite phase change material for thermal energy storage and thermal management applications
Influence of the storage period between charge and discharge in a latent heat thermal energy storage system working under partial load operating conditions
Dynamic building envelope with PCM for cooling purposes – Proof of concept

From Air Force Research Laboratory:

High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage (HEATS) [pdf]

From Solar Energy:

Synthesis and characterization of sensible thermal heat storage mixture containing phosphate compound of cobalt and sodium
Thermal performance of non-ventilated multilayer glazing facades filled with phase change material

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Charging nanoparticle enhanced bio-based PCM in open cell metallic foams: An experimental investigation
Thermal performance analysis and optimization of a spherical PCM capsule with pin-fins for cold storage
A phase change material with enhanced thermal conductivity and secondary heat dissipation capability by introducing a binary thermal conductive skeleton for battery thermal management

From Materials:

Characterization of MgCl2·6H2O-Based Eutectic/Expanded Perlite Composite Phase Change Material with Low Thermal Conductivity

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Size controlled lauric acid/silicon dioxide nanocapsules for thermal energy storage

From Energy Procedia:

Life Cycle Assessment of thermal energy storage materials and components

From MATEC Web of Conferences:

A Numerical Method for Analysing Heat Conduction in Composites Containing Encapsulated Phase Change Materials [pdf]

From Journal of Building Engineering:

Research roundup: Thermo-regulating bamboo fabric; PCM emulsions; nanoparticle-enhanced composite; more

Ben Welter - Friday, November 30, 2018

From Journal of Cleaner Production:

Autonomous greenhouse microclimate through hydroponic design and refurbished thermal energy by phase change material

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Development of heat accumulation unit based on heterogeneous structure of MF/PCM for cogeneration units

From Textile Research Journal:

Preparation and evaluation of thermo-regulating bamboo fabric treated by microencapsulated phase change materials

From International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology:

Development of thermo-regulating fabrics using PCM microcapsules with poly(methyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) shell and n-alkane core

From Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering International Congress:

Preparation and Properties of Nanoparticle-enhanced Composite Phase Change Material with Ceramic Porous Media

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

A comprehensive review on phase change material emulsions: Fabrication, characteristics, and heat transfer performance

From 59th Conference on Simulation and Modelling:

Convective Melting Modeling Approach for Phase Change Materials with Variable Boundary Heating

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Simultaneous energy storage and recovery in the triplex-tube heat exchanger with PCM, copper fins and Al2O3 nanoparticles

From International Journal of Energy Research:

Operation strategies guideline for packed bed thermal energy storage systems [pdf]

From Journal of Molecular Liquids:

Solidification process of hybrid nano-enhanced phase change material in a LHTESS with tree-like branching fin in the presence of thermal radiation

From Energy:

Experiment study on thermal performance of building integrated with double layers shape-stabilized phase change material wallboard

Research roundup: Sodium acetate trihydrate; palm kernel vegetable fat; spiral-fin heat exchanger; gas flow through bed of granular PCM; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, November 06, 2018

From Energy:

Preparation and thermal properties of sodium acetate trihydrate as a novel phase change material for energy storage

From Journal of Building Engineering:

The Palm Kernel Vegetable Fat: a Low-cost Bio-based Phase Change Material for Thermal Energy Storage in Buildings

From International Journal of Applied Engineering Research:

Carbonaceous Phase Change Nanocomposites: A low cost energy storage approach [pdf]

From Applied Mathematical Modelling:

Investigation of Phase Change in a Spiral-Fin Heat Exchanger

From Applied Energy:

Numerical investigation of the thermal performance enhancement of latent heat thermal energy storage using longitudinal rectangular fins and flat micro-heat pipe arrays

From Materials Science and Engineering:

The characteristics of temperature fluctuations in thermal insulation covered with layer of PCM [pdf]

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Thermal properties and applications of microencapsulated PCM for thermal energy storage: A review

From International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer:

Evaluation and optimization of thermal performance for a finned double tube latent heat thermal energy storage
Influence of gas compressibility on gas flow through bed of granular phase change material

From Journal of Energy Storage:

From International Journal of Refrigeration:

Investigating organic phase change behavior with thermal photography

Research roundup: Synthesis of n-butyl palmitate; graphite as heat-transfer enhancer in high-temperature inorganic PCM; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, October 25, 2018

From Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry:

Synthesis and characterization of the n-butyl palmitate as an organic phase change material

From Renewable Energy:

Encapsulation of high-temperature inorganic phase change materials using graphite as heat transfer enhancer

From Synthesis, Technology and Applications of Carbon Nanomaterials:

Activated Carbon for Shape-Stabilized Phase Change Material

From Applied Energy:

Thermal conductivity enhancement of phase change materials with 3D porous diamond foam for thermal energy storage

From Energy and Technology Journal:

Enhancement of Thermal Storage Properties of Phase Change Material by Using Metallic Swarf [pdf]

From ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering:

Fabrication and Characterization of Flame-Retardant Nanoencapsulated n-Octadecane with Melamine–Formaldehyde Shell for Thermal Energy Storage

From Energy Storage Materials:

Polyurethane-Based Flexible and Conductive Phase Change Composites for Energy Conversion and Storage

From Materials Today:

Research roundup: Solar fish dryer; oscillating heat pipe; small-scale refrigeration system; more

Ben Welter - Monday, October 22, 2018

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Experiments on comparative performance of water thermocline storage tank with and without encapsulated paraffin wax packed bed
Experimental study and performance prediction of the PCM-antifreeze solar thermal system under cold weather conditions
Improving System Performance of a Personal Conditioning System integrated with Thermal Storage

From Energy:

A methodological concept for phase change material selection based on multi-criteria decision making (MCDM): A case study

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Experimental analysis of solar fish dryer using phase change material

From International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer:

Experimental investigation on thermal performance of phase change material coupled with three-dimensional oscillating heat pipe (PCM/3D-OHP) for thermal management application

From Sustainable Cities and Society:

Experimental investigation on melting and solidification behaviour of erythritol in a vertical double spiral coil thermal energy storage system

From Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry:

Investigation of energy and exergy performance on a small-scale refrigeration system with PCMs inserted between coil and wall of the evaporator cabin

From Journal of Applied Physics:

Optimizing the design of composite phase change materials for high thermal power density

From Energy Procedia:

The technical and economic feasibility of utilizing phase change materials for thermal storage in district heating networks

Research roundup: Crude glycerol polyurethane composite foams; heat transfer analysis; Kalina cycle; more

Ben Welter - Wednesday, October 10, 2018

From Materials:

Thermal Energy Storage and Mechanical Performance of Crude Glycerol Polyurethane Composite Foams Containing Phase Change Materials and Expandable Graphite

From International Journal of Energy Research:

Review on heat transfer analysis in thermal energy storage using latent heat storage systems and phase change materials

From International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer:

Recent developments in phase change materials for energy storage applications: A review

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Integrated power generation cycle (Kalina cycle) with auxiliary heater and PCM energy storage

From Minerals:

Mullite Stabilized Palmitic Acid as Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Microencapsulated phase change material (MEPCM) saturated in metal foam as an efficient hybrid PCM for passive thermal management: A numerical and experimental study
Inverse method to estimate air flow rate during free cooling using PCM-air heat exchanger

Patent application: Low remnant free microcapsules and method of making same

Ben Welter - Friday, September 28, 2018

U.S. patent application 20180273820 (applicant Microtek Laboratories Inc., Dayton, Ohio)

"A microcapsule or microcapsule having a polymer wall comprising a melamine formaldehyde reacted with a crosslinking agent to form a unit cell according to a general formula (II) and/or the polymer wall has a FT-IR Spectrum as shown in FIG. 4. The crosslinking agent is a mixture of a reaction product of a cyclic urea (U) and a multifunctional aldehyde (A), and at least one crosslinker selected from the following group: a reaction products of (i) an aminotriazine and at least one aldehyde selected from the group consisting of aliphatic monoaldehydes and multifunctional aliphatic aldehydes, (ii) urea and/or cyclic ureas and formaldehyde, or (iii) phenols and aliphatic monoaldehydes, or from alkoxycarbonylaminotriazines, or multifunctional isocyanates, epoxides, aziridines, and carbodiimides."

Research roundup: Myristic acid with ethyl cellulose shell; phase-change acoustic heat engine; hybrid personal cooling system; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, September 25, 2018

From Applied Energy:

Microencapsulation and thermal properties of myristic acid with ethyl cellulose shell for thermal energy storage
Fast and experimentally validated model of a latent thermal energy storage device for system level simulations
Numerical simulation and experimental validation of the solar photovoltaic/thermal system with phase change material
Low-temperature energy conversion using a phase-change acoustic heat engine

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Exploring additives for improving the reliability of zinc nitrate hexahydrate as a phase change material (PCM)

From Energy:

Laboratory assessment of residential building walls containing pipe-encapsulated phase change materials for thermal management
Review on thermal performances and applications of thermal energy storage systems with inorganic phase change materials

From Nano Energy:

Nanoconfinement effects on thermal properties of nanoporous shape-stabilized composite PCMs: A review

From International Journal of Thermal Sciences:

Study of heat and fluid flow during melting of PCM inside vertical cylindrical tube

From Building and Environment:

A new hybrid personal cooling system (HPCS) incorporating insulation pads for thermal comfort management: Experimental validation and parametric study

From International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer:

An analytical technique for the optimal designs of tube-in-tank thermal energy storage systems using PCM

From 2nd International conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering:

Study of freezing characteristics of water based grapheme Nano-fluid PCM in a spherical capsule [pdf]
Enhancement of thermal conductivity of PCM using filler graphite powder materials [pdf]

From 10th International Conference on Applied Energy:

A Numerical Investigation into the Heat Transfer and Melting Process of Lauric Acid in a Rectangular Enclosure with Three Values of Wall Heat Flux