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The award-winning Phase Change Matters blog tracks the latest news and research on phase change materials and thermal energy storage. E-mail tips and comments to Ben Welter, communications director at Entropy Solutions. Follow the blog on Twitter at @PureTemp. Subscribe to the weekly PCM newsletter. Or join the discussion on LinkedIn.

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Research roundup: Surface functionalization of composite PCM; EnergyPlus optimization; direct expansion solar heat pump; more

Ben Welter - Friday, April 26, 2019

From Applied Surface Science:

Effects of surface functionalization on thermal and mechanical properties of graphene/polyethylene glycol composite phase change materials

From Applied Energy:

Facile flexible reversible thermochromic membranes based on micro/nanoencapsulated phase change materials for wearable temperature sensor
Shape-remodeled macrocapsule of phase change materials for thermal energy storage and thermal management
Investigation on the thermal performance of a high temperature packed bed thermal energy storage system containing carbonate salt based composite phase change materials
Toward a new method for the design of combined sensible/latent thermal-energy storage using non-dimensional analysis
Strategic control and cost optimization of thermal energy storage in buildings using EnergyPlus
Adaptive measures for mitigating urban heat islands: The potential of thermochromic materials to control roofing energy balance

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene-co-acrylamide)/n-octadecane microencapsulated phase change materials for thermal energy storage

From Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews:

Recent advances in direct expansion solar assisted heat pump systems: A review
Review on nanoporous composite phase change materials: Fabrication, characterization, enhancement and molecular simulation

From Energy and Buildings:

Experimental Testing of Phase Change Materials in a Warm-Summer Humid Continental Climate

From International Journal of Energy Research:

Development of pentadecane/diatomite and pentadecane/sepiolite nanocomposites fabricated by different compounding methods for thermal energy storage

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Heat transfer performance of graphene nano-platelets laden micro-encapsulated PCM with polymer shell for thermal energy storage based heat sink

From Journal of Applied Polymer Science:

Investigations on thermal properties of microencapsulated phase‐change materials with different acrylate‐based copolymer shells as thermal insulation materials

From Solar Energy:

Experimental investigation on the impact of thermal energy storage on the solar still performance coupled with PV module via new integration

From Thermochimica Acta:

Nanoencapsulated phase change material with polydopamine-SiO2 hybrid shell for tough thermo-regulating rigid polyurethane foam

From International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer:

Optimization of the detailed factors in a phase-change-material module for battery thermal management

From Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering :

A review on the best practices in concrete pavement design and materials in wet-freeze climates similar to Michigan

From Case Studies in Thermal Engineering:

Study of a passive solar air heater using palm oil and paraffin as storage media

From Acta Microscopica:

Preparation of Graphene Hybrid Material and Thermal Properties of Polymer Composites

Research roundup: PCM use in mortars; compatibility with selected plastics; myo-inositol sugar alcohol; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, April 23, 2019

From Materials:

Phase Change Materials for Energy Efficiency in Buildings and Their Use in Mortars

From Polymer Testing:
From Renewable Energy:


From Molecules:

From Applied Energy:

Natural convection during melting in vertical finned tube latent thermal energy storage systems
Year-round performance analysis of a photovoltaic panel coupled with phase change material

From Energy Procedia:

A Review of the Performance of Buildings Integrated with Phase Change Material: Opportunities for Application in Cold Climate

From Journal of Applied Polymer Science:

Encapsulation of polar phase change materials via multiemulsification and crosslinking method and its application in building

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Thermal performance of shell and tube latent heat storage unit: Comparative assessment of horizontal and vertical orientation
Experimental investigation of phase change in a multitube heat exchanger

From Chemistry Select:

Preparation and Thermal Properties of Stearic Acid/n‐Octadecane Binary Eutectic Mixture as Phase Change Materials for Energy Storage

From Journal of Materials Research:

Synthesis of novel shape-stabilized phase change materials with high latent heat and low supercooling degree for thermal energy storage

From Science of Advanced Materials:

Fabrication and Performance of Polyurethane/Polyurea Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials with Isophorone Diisocyanate via Interfacial Polymerization
Design and Analysis of Battery Box Based on Graphite-Phase Change Material and Air Cooling

From Experimental Techniques:

Design, Build, and Test a Hybrid Cooling System for Crash Helmet

From Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry:

Capric acid/intercalated diatomite as form-stable composite phase change material for thermal energy storage
Preparation and thermal performances of microencapsulated phase change materials with a nano-Al2O3-doped shell

Patent application: Thermal energy storage systems utilizing phase change material

Ben Welter - Friday, April 19, 2019

U.S. patent application 20190101337 (applicant SABIC Global Technologies B.V., Bergen op Zoom, Netherlands):

"A thermal energy storage system utilizes a phase change material with an encapsulating material surrounding the phase change material. The encapsulating material fully contains the phase change material to prevent passage of the phase change material out of the encapsulating material and/or prevent direct contact of the phase change material with external objects. The encapsulating material is a high density polyethylene (HDPE), which may be a non-crosslinked or crosslinked HDPE. In a method of forming a thermal energy storage system a phase change material is surrounded with the encapsulating material."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20190101337.pdf

Research roundup: Hollow aluminum bricks; animal-fat-based PCM for building applications; floor heating system design; more

Ben Welter - Wednesday, March 27, 2019

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Thermal characteristics of aluminium hollowed bricks filled with phase change materials: Experimental and numerical analyses

From Energies:

Assessing the Potentiality of Animal Fat Based-Bio Phase Change Materials (PCM) for Building Applications: An Innovative Multipurpose Thermal Investigation

From Sustainable Energy and Fuels:

Innovative design of microencapsulated phase change materials for thermal energy storage and versatile applications: A review

From Environmental Research:

Design and analysis of phase change material based floor heating system for thermal energy storage

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Direct impregnation and characterization of Colemanite/Ulexite-Mg (OH) 2 paraffin based form-stable phase change composites
Experimental analysis of solar air collector with PCM-honeycomb combination under the natural convection

From Journal of Molecular Liquids:

Fabrication and characterization of phase change nanofluid with high thermophysical properties for thermal energy storage

From Renewable Energy:

Investigation of thermal properties and enhanced energy storage/release performance of silica fume/myristic acid composite doped with carbon nanotubes

From International Journal of Thermal Physics:

Thermal Property Characterization of a Low Supercooling Degree Binary Mixed Molten Salt for Thermal Energy Storage System

From Journal of Energy Storage:

From Energy Procedia:

Development of Corn-Oil Ester and Water Mixture Phase Change Materials for Food Refrigeration Applications
Experimental study on the performance of a new encapsulation panel for PCM's to be used in the PCM-Air heat exchanger

From Case Studies in Thermal Engineering:

Thermal characteristics on melting/solidification of low temperature PCM balls packed bed with air charging/discharging

Research roundup: Micro/nano PCM for solar thermal applications; photovoltaic cooling; beeswax emulsions; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, March 21, 2019

From Renewable Energy:

Review on micro/nano phase change materials for solar thermal applications

From Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering :

Photovoltaic Cooling Using Phase Change Material

From Advanced Materials Interfaces:

Phase Change Materials: Superhydrophobic Coatings from Beeswax‐in‐Water Emulsions with Latent Heat Storage Capability

From Energy Storage:

Experimental Observations on the Interface Front of Phase Change Material inside Cylindrical Cavity

From Applied Energy:

Effect of different dimensional carbon materials on the properties and application of phase change materials: A review

Research roundup: Poly (methyl methacrylate) shell; calcium carbonate shell; macroscopic composite cement mortars; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, March 19, 2019

From Energy Procedia:

Development of microencapsulated phase change material with poly (methyl methacrylate) shell for thermal energy storage
Supercooling study of erythritol/EG composite phase change materials
Thermal performance of pouch Lithium-ion battery module cooled by phase change materials
Active cooling based battery thermal management using composite phase change materials
Investigation on Thermal Performance of an Integrated Phase Change Material Blind System for Double Skin Facade Buildings
Experimental study on preparation of a novel foamed cement with paraffin/ expanded graphite composite phase change thermal energy storage material

From Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects:

Synthesis and performance evaluation of paraffin microcapsules with calcium carbonate shell modulated by different anionic surfactants for thermal energy storage

From Journal of Materials Chemistry A:

A novel shape-stabilization strategy for phase change thermal energy storage

From Journal of Molecular Liquids:

Melting of phase change materials in a trapezoidal cavity: Orientation and nanoparticles effects

From Energy and Buildings:

Development of new nano-enhanced phase change materials (NEPCM) to improve energy efficiency in buildings: lab-scale characterization

From Applied Sciences:

Efficient Characterization of Macroscopic Composite Cement Mortars with Various Contents of Phase Change Material

From Solar Energy:

Modelling and performance analysis of a new concept of integral collector storage (ICS) with phase change material

Research roundup: Personal cooling system; optimization of active wall system; cement mortar; asphalt pavement; more

Ben Welter - Friday, March 15, 2019

From International Journal of Refrigeration:

Experimental study of enhanced PCM exchangers applied in a thermal energy storage system for personal cooling

JMR illustration of microencapsulated n-octadecane with silk From Journal of Materials Research:

Fabrication and characterization of microencapsulated n-octadecane with silk fibroin–silver nanoparticles shell for thermal regulation

From IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Sciences:

Simple Thermal Energy Storage Tank for Improving the Energy Efficiency of an Existing Air-conditioning System
An optimization study into thermally activated wall system with latent heat thermal energy storage
Simulation of operation performance of a solar assisted ground heat pump system with phase change thermal storage for heating in a rural building in Xi'an
Experimental Study on the Demand Shifting Effects of PCM Integrated Air-Conditioning Duct

From International Journal of Energy Research:

Efficiency optimisation of the thermal energy storage unit in the form of the ceiling panel for summer conditions

From Materials Research Express:

Experimental study on thermal conductivity of composite phase change material of fatty acid and paraffin

From Energies:

Design Optimization of a Hybrid Steam-PCM Thermal Energy Storage for Industrial Applications

From Construction and Building Materials:

Analysis of thermoregulation indices on microencapsulated phase change materials for asphalt pavement

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Experimental and numerical characterization of an impure phase change material using a thermal lattice Boltzmann method

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Experimental and numerical study of a vertical earth-to-air heat exchanger system integrated with annular phase change material

From Materials:

Thermal and Structural Characterization of Geopolymer-Coated Polyurethane Foam—Phase Change Material Capsules/Geopolymer Concrete Composites

From Applied Sciences:

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Cement Mortar Containing Phase Change Materials

Patent application: Dimensionally stable phase change material

Ben Welter - Friday, March 15, 2019

U.S. patent application 20190078006 (applicant Microtek Laboratories Inc., Dayton, Ohio):

"Methods for producing a dimensionally stable phase change material (PCM), and dimensionally stable PCMs are disclosed. The methods include providing a porous base material, mixing a phase change material having a polar functional group with a substance that increases the polar attraction of the phase change material for the porous base material to form a mixture thereof; and, thereafter, mixing the mixture with the porous base material until a selected saturation of phase change material in the porous base material is reached. The methods may include filtering the porous base material after the selected saturation is reached to form a cake of dimensionally stable PCM and, thereafter, reducing the size of the dimensionally stable PCM to an average mean particle size of about 10 to about 50 μm, or more preferably 20 to 30 μm."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20190078006.pdf

Microtek introduces new PCM built with nextek encapsulation technology

Ben Welter - Monday, March 11, 2019

Microtek Laboratories of Dayton, Ohio, has developed a new microencapsulated phase change material designed for use in bedding, building materials and consumer textiles.

The biobased PCM, vivtek 29, is offered in wet cake form. It has a melting point of 31º Celsius and a thermal storage capacity of 170 joules per gram. The mean particle size is 14-24 microns.

Microtek says the new product, built using the company’s patented nextek encapsulation technology, “combines robustness, high thermal stability and easy dispersibility” in an aqueous solution and is "less flammable than traditional PCMs." The company quietly introduced vivtek in July 2018.

Microtek President Tim Riazzi says the company has “several projects in the development phase” that use the nextek encapsulation technology.

“Interest in consumer applications [for vivtek] is very good,” Riazzi said. “As with general consumer desires, more and more of our partners are looking and asking for sustainable and bio-based options to add to their product lines.”

https://www.microteklabs.com/blog/introducing-vivtek-29

PCM briefing: Boston food bank installs Viking Cold TES system; 2-day workshop on microencapsulation

Ben Welter - Friday, March 08, 2019

The Greater Boston Food Bank is reporting a 75 percent reduction in energy use during targeted peak hours since the beginning of the year after installing a Viking Cold Solutions thermal energy storage system for the refrigeration units at its 117,000 square-foot, high-efficiency Yawkey Distribution Center.

Maria Telkes• To mark Women's History Month, 24/7 Wall St. has compiled a list of "50 Things You Never Knew Were Invented by Women." MIT researcher Maria Telkes, a pioneer in the field of solar thermal storage, is on the list at No. 30. She created the first solar-heated system for her home in Dover, Mass., in 1947. The system used a phase change material, sodium sulfate decahydrate, to store solar heat.

• Researchers at the Chinese Academy of Sciences say they have developed an inexpensive, flexible film that renders the objects it covers virtually invisible in infrared light. The film's main components are DuPont's Kevlar, a synthetic fiber with high tensile strength, and polyethylene glycol, a phase change material that can store heat. 

• French utility ENGIE has begun production at one of South Africa’s largest renewable energy projects, the 100MW Kathu Solar Park. The concentrated solar plant's molten salt storage system provides up to 4.5 hours of thermal energy storage.

• The Southwest Research Institute is hosting a two-day workshop on microencapsulation March 25-26 in San Antonio, Texas. The introductory course will cover topics such as atomization (spray drying, spray chilling, spray congealing) and spray coating (fluid bed coating, granulation). The cost is $950.

• The University of California is winning praise for its decision to end its subscription deal with Elsevier, the world’s biggest publisher of scientific journals. UC is the first major university system to push for open-access publishing. UC, which had been paying $11 million a year to Elsevier in subscription fees, generates about 10 percent of the research produced in the United States. “It’s ridiculous that, in this age of the internet, researchers are paying huge fees for access to academic papers and for publication of their own work,” the San Jose Mercury News said in a March 6 editorial.