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The award-winning Phase Change Matters blog tracks the latest news and research on phase change materials and thermal energy storage. E-mail tips and comments to Ben Welter, communications director at Entropy Solutions. Follow the blog on Twitter at @PureTemp. Subscribe to the weekly PCM newsletter. Or join the discussion on LinkedIn.

Two Entropy advisors, Dr. Mohammed Farid and Lucas B. Hyman, are pleased to take your questions about PCMs and thermal energy storage. Send your questions to We'll select the best and post the answers here each week.




Research roundup: PCM-assisted night purge ventilation; dispersed metallic nanoparticles; crystallohydrates; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, June 20, 2017

Nanoencapsulated crystallohydrate mixtures for advanced thermal energy storage [Journal of Materials Chemistry A]

Hexadecane-in-water emulsions as thermal-energy storage and heat transfer fluids: Connections between phase-transition temperature and period of hexadecane droplets dispersed in hexadecane-in-water emulsions and characteristics of surfactants [Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects]

Evaluating the Performance of American Change Phase Paraffin Cooling Vest and Iranian Spadana Gel Ice Cooling Vest on the Perceptual and Physiological Strain Score Index in Hot and Humid Working Conditions of Assaluyeh in Iran [International Journal of Occupational Hygiene]

Development of thermal enhanced n-octadecane/porous nano carbon-based materials using 3-step filtered vacuum impregnation method [Thermochimica Acta]

The impact of phase change materials assisted night purge ventilation on the indoor thermal conditions of office buildings in hot-arid climates [Energy and Buildings]

Thermal energy harvest in the discharge of CO2 semi-clathrate hydrate in an emulated cold storage system [Applied Thermal Engineering]

Melting dynamics of a phase change material (PCM) with dispersed metallic nanoparticles using transport coefficients from empirical and mean field models [Applied Thermal Engineering]

Comparative assessment of thermal comfort with insulation and phase change materials utilizations in building roofs and walls [pdf] [Advanced Materials Proceedings]

Fabrication and properties of graphene oxide-grafted-poly(hexadecyl acrylate) as a solid-solid phase change material [Composites Science and Technology]

Patent application: Compressed gas energy storage and harvesting system

Ben Welter - Wednesday, June 14, 2017

U.S. patent application 20170160019 (applicant IFP Energies Nouvelles, France ):

"The present invention relates to an AACAES system and method in which balls make it possible to store heat. The heat exchanges are produced by means of at least one radial heat exchanger, in which the balls and a first fluid circulate, the first fluid passing radially through means for circulating the balls. ... [Said] heat storage balls are produced in alumina, in metal or by micro or nano capsules of phase change material, such as paraffins, metals or salts. "

Research roundup: Shape-stabilized PCM in epoxy matrix; myristyl alcohol/metal foam for solar thermal storage; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, June 01, 2017

Illustration of shape-stabilized PCM in epoxy matrix

Novel shape stabilized phase change material based on epoxy matrix with ultrahigh cycle life for thermal energy storage [Applied Thermal Engineering]

Thermal and electrical performance of a PV module integrated with double layers of water-saturated MEPCM [Applied Thermal Engineering]

Investigation on thermal and mechanical characteristics of concrete mixed with shape stabilized phase change material for mix design [Construction and Building Materials]

Thermal properties and thermal conductivity enhancement of composite phase change materials using myristyl alcohol/metal foam for solar thermal storage [Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells]

Experimental and Numerical Study on Energy Performance of Buildings Integrated with Phase Change Materials [Energy Procedia]

Evaluation on Performance of a Phase Change Material Based Cold Storage House [Energy Procedia]

Using Phase Change Materials to Reduce Overheating Issues in UK Residential Buildings [Energy Procedia]

Effect of Supercooling on the Solidification Process of the Phase Change Material [Energy Procedia]

Experimental Investigation of a Spiral Tube Embedded Latent Thermal Energy Storage Tank Using Paraffin as PCM [Energy Procedia]

Investigation of specific heat and latent heat enhancement in hydrate salt based TiO2 nanofluid phase change material [Applied Thermal Engineering]

Modeling and investigation of high temperature phase change materials (PCM) in different storage tank configurations [Journal of Cleaner Production]

Lauric acid/modified sepiolite composite as a form-stable phase change material for thermal energy storage [Applied Clay Science]

PCM briefing: Outlast introduces Xelerate fabric; Warmilu signs 2 distributors

Ben Welter - Friday, May 19, 2017

Drawing of Outlast Xelerate

Outlast Europe's Martin Bentz spoke with T.EVO magazine this month about the company's new Xelerate fabric. The fabric, introduced at a German trade fair earlier this year, incorporates "heat spreader" technology, a process traditionally known for cooling electronic devices. Xelerate fabric features improved thermal conductivity, Bentz said, and is suitable for home textiles, sportswear and protective gear. In an email exchange with Phase Change Matters, Bentz declined to discuss specific partners or customers.

Warmilu, maker of the IncuBlanket infant warmer, reports that is on track for $300,000 in total 2017 sales after signing two distributors for Latin America, Africa and Southeast Asia: Relief for Africa Foundation and Maternova. The IncuBlanket, which has been successfully tested in clinical trials in India, uses packs filled with sodium acetate trihydrate to keep infants warm for up to five hours. CEO Grace Hsia says the device recently cleared its first regulatory filing with Kenya's Pharmacy and Poisons Board.

Axiom Exergy has won a Gold Stevie for Energy Innovation in the 15th annual American Business Awards. Axiom's "refrigeration battery" enables supermarkets and food warehouses to store thermal energy at night when power is cheaper. The system, which uses salt-based phase change material, reduces peak power usage by up to 40 percent.

• Registration is open for IFAI's Expo 2017, set for Sept. 27-29 in New Orleans. The Industrial Fabrics Association International show will feature sessions on smart fabrics, military procurement, biomimesis and green certification.   

Pelican BioThermal has introduced a new Series 22 Universal system for its Credo brand of shippers. The system uses a dual PCM coolant system designed to be operational throughout the year.

National Law Review offers a fresh overview of green chemistry laws across the United States. "State chemical control regimes," the authors conclude, "are likely to increase cost and foster confusion about chemical safety, which is one reason that Congress agreed to modernize TSCA by adopting LCSA."

Monodraught's Cool-phase ventilation and cooling system was among the finalists honored at the National CSR Awards in London this week. The hybrid system, which won a "One to Watch" award, uses PCMs to store and release thermal energy, providing a free cooling load and reducing energy and maintenance costs.

• The agenda has been released for the 15th Cold Chain Global Forum to be held Sept. 25-29 in Chicago. Frank Butch, director of engineering at Sonoco ThermoSafe, will lead a master class on temperature assurance packaging certification.

Bloomberg BNA is offering a free webinar June 12: "Reviewing New Chemicals under Amended TSCA: Impact on Innovation." 

Outlast Europe's Martin Bentz spoke with T.EVO magazine this month about the company's new Xelerate fabric (shown below). The fabric, introduced at a German trade fair earlier this year, incorporates "heat spreader" technology, a process traditionally known for cooling electronic devices. Xelerate fabric features improved thermal conductivity, Bentz said, and is suitable for home textiles, sportswear and protective gear. In an email exchange with Phase Change Matters, Bentz declined to discuss specific partners or customers.

Research roundup: Crystallization of salt hydrates in polymeric foam; Glauber's salt; cetyl alcohol/HDPE composites; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, May 18, 2017

Numerical study on melt fraction during melting of phase change material inside a sphere [International Journal of Hydrogen Energy]

Crystallization of inorganic salt hydrates in polymeric foam for thermal energy storage application [Journal of Energy Storage]

Evaluating the passive and free cooling application methods of phase change materials in residential buildings: A comparative study [Energy and Buildings]

Microstructure and thermal properties of cetyl alcohol/high density polyethylene composite phase change materials with carbon fiber as shape-stabilized thermal storage materials [Applied Energy]

Screening alternatives for producing paraffinic phase change materials for thermal energy storage in buildings [International Journal of Energy Research]

Various Applications of Phase Change Materials: Thermal Energy Storing Materials [pdf] [International Journal of Emerging Research in Management]

Preparation and thermal properties of Glauber’s salt-based phase-change materials for Qinghai–Tibet Plateau solar greenhouses [International Journal of Modern Physics B]

Numerical analysis on the energy storage efficiency of phase change material embedded in finned metal foam with graded porosity [Applied Thermal Engineering]

Passive cooling potential in buildings under various climatic conditions in India [Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews]

BASF sells Micronal PCM line to Microtek Labs

Ben Welter - Wednesday, May 17, 2017

Microtek Laboratories of Dayton, Ohio, today announced it has signed a contract to purchase BASF's Micronal line of microencapsulated phase change material. Financial terms of the deal were not disclosed.

Micronal logoThe Micronal line, introduced in 2004, includes six paraffin-based PCMs offered in liquid and powder form, with melt points ranging from 21° C to 26° C. Microencapsulated PCMs are used for thermal regulation in building and construction products, mattresses, textiles and packaging applications. Micronal is key component of building products such as Knauf wallboard and National Gypsum's ThermalCORE panels. 

Manufacturing of Micronal products will be transitioned to Microtek’s Dayton production facility by the end of the year. Microtek has taken ownership of all Micronal inventory and will begin working with Micronal customers on May 23.

“This is great addition to Microtek’s product line, creating a real advantage for customers who already have a defined manufacturing/coating process requiring a specific type of phase change product in their formulation,” said Randall Lane, Microtek’s chief strategy officer. “Microtek’s mission has always been to provide innovative solutions to enhance product performance for our customers. Adding Micronal to the product line allows Microtek to remain the world leader in microencapsulated PCM products.”

BASF, based in Ludwigshafen, Germany, said the sale will allow its dispersions and pigments division to focus on its core business, "dispersions and additives in the field of raw materials used in construction chemicals." BASF said the sale does not include Ludwigshafen production assets or employees.

Microtek, founded in 1985, is a privately held company focused on phase change material and microencapsulation services. It introduced its Nextek line of PCM capsules in 2016.

Research roundup: Expanded graphite/adipic acid composite PCMs; nanomagnetite enhanced paraffin; more

Ben Welter - Friday, April 28, 2017

From Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry:

Preparation and thermal cycling of expanded graphite/adipic acid composite phase change materials

From RSC Advances:

Phase change materials of fatty amine-modified silicate clays of nano layered structures
Myristic acid-hybridized diatomite composite as a shape-stabilized phase change material for thermal energy storage

From 4th Sustainable Thermal Energy Management International Conference:

Domestic thermal storage requirements for heat demand flexibility

From Smart Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation for Energy Systems:

Novel dynamic thermal characterization of multifunctional concretes with microencapsulated phase change materials

From Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures:

Nanomagnetite Enhanced Paraffin for Thermal Energy Storage Applications [pdf]

From Energy Procedia:

Solar Thermal Energy with Molten-salt Storage for Residential Heating Application

From Solar Energy:

Performance study and analysis of an inclined concentrated photovoltaic-phase change material system

From Energy:

Preparation, thermal properties and thermal reliability of a novel mid-temperature composite phase change material for energy conservation

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Investigation on the thermal performance of a high-temperature latent heat storage system

From Cement and Concrete Composites:

Numerical simulations to quantify the influence of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the early- and later-age thermal response of concrete pavements

From International Journal of Refrigeration:

Performance study on air-cooled household refrigerator with cold storage phase change materials

From Energy and Buildings:

Novel thermosetting phase change materials with polycarbonatediol based curing agent as supporting skeleton for thermal energy storage 

From Journal of Cleaner Production:

Improving thermal response of lightweight timber building envelopes during cooling season in three European locations 

Research roundup: Fast charging with expanded graphite; rebar corrosion in PCM-enhanced concrete; hybrid cooling vest; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, March 28, 2017

Fast charging of thermal energy storage systems enabled by phase change materials mixed with expanded graphite [International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer]

Synthesis and characterization of a narrow size distribution nano phase change material emulsion for thermal energy storage [Solar Energy]

Analysis of the effects of use of thermal energy storage device (TESD) in solar air heater [Alexandria Engineering Journal]

Experiment and simulation of thermal management for a tube-shell Li-ion battery pack with composite phase change material [Applied Thermal Engineering]

Novel model for the prediction of SSLE temperatures and crystallization paths of any mixture containing palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid [Thermochimica Acta]

A review on recent advancements in photovoltaic thermal techniques [Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews]

A comparative study on corrosion behavior of rebar in concrete with fatty acid additive as phase change material [Construction and Building Materials]

Novel phase change materials based on fatty acid eutectics and triallyl isocyanurate composites for thermal energy storage [Journal of Applied Polymer Science]

Optimal cooling intervention for construction workers in a hot and humid environment [Building and Environment]

Research roundup: PCM compatibility with metals, plastic; desiccant packet for cooling vest; paraffin viscosity; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, March 23, 2017

Investigation of the corrosive properties of phase change materials in contact with metals and plastic [Renewable Energy]

Preparation and thermal properties of SAT-CMC-DSP/EG composite as phase change material [Applied Thermal Engineering]

A numerical study on the usage of phase change material (PCM) to prolong compressor off period in a beverage cooler [Energy Conversion and Management]

Abilities and limitations of thermal mass activation for thermal comfort, peak shifting and shaving: A review [Building and Environment]

Corrosion effect of phase change materials in solar thermal energy storage application [Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews]

A review for phase change materials (PCMs) in solar absorption refrigeration systems [Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews]

Sodium nitrate – Diatomite composite materials for thermal energy storage [Solar Energy]

Innovative PCM-desiccant packet to provide dry microclimate and improve performance of cooling vest in hot environment [Energy Conversion and Management]

Heat transfer study of phase change materials with graphene nano particle for thermal energy storage [Solar Energy]

Energy performance evaluation of heat-storage gypsum board with hybrid SSPCM composite [Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry]

Empirical equation to estimate viscosity of paraffin [Journal of Energy Storage]

Yearly energy performance of a photovoltaic-phase change material (PV-PCM) system in hot climate [Solar Energy]

Research roundup: 2 promising PCM candidates; calcium carbonate shell; thermocapillary effects; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, February 21, 2017

Thermal properties characterization of two promising phase change material candidates [Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry]

Self-assembly synthesis and properties of microencapsulated n-tetradecane phase change materials with calcium carbonate shell for cold energy storage [ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering]

Thermal Analysis of a Thermal Energy Storage Unit to Enhance a Workshop Heating System Driven by Industrial Residual Water [Energies]

Effect of a low-cost parabolic reflector on the charging efficiency of an evacuated tube collector/storage system with a PCM [Solar Energy]

Numerical study on free-surface jet impingement cooling with nanoencapsulated phase-change material slurry and nanofluid [International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer]

Heat transfer performance and melting dynamic of a phase change material subjected to thermocapillary effects [International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer]

Evaluation and optimization of melting performance for a latent heat thermal energy storage unit partially filled with porous media [Applied Energy]

Carbon nanotube/paraffin/montmorillonite composite phase change material for thermal energy storage [Solar Energy]

Synthesis and thermal properties of novel solid-solid phase change materials with comb-polyurethane block copolymer structure for thermal energy storage [Thermochimica Acta]

Synthesis and Properties of Polyurethane/Coal-Derived Carbon Foam Phase Change Composites for Thermal Energy Storage [Acta Physico-Chimica Sinica]