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The award-winning Phase Change Matters blog tracks the latest news and research on phase change materials and thermal energy storage. E-mail tips and comments to Ben Welter, communications director at Entropy Solutions. Follow the blog on Twitter at @PureTemp. Subscribe to the weekly PCM newsletter. Or join the discussion on LinkedIn.

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Research roundup: Review of latent heat storage systems; triple-glazed window with PCM; myristic acid; more

Ben Welter - Wednesday, January 17, 2018

Design of a Latent Thermal Energy Storage System From Constructal Approach [ASME 2017 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition]

Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems with Solid–Liquid Phase Change Materials: A Review [Advanced Engineering Materials]

Simulation Research on the Dynamic Thermal Performance of a Novel Triple-glazed Window Filled with PCM [Sustainable Cities and Society]

Charging and Discharging Period Analysis of Myristic Acid as Phase Change Material [pdf] [International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology]

Solid-liquid phase equilibria of stearic acid and dicarboxylic acids binary mixtures as low temperature thermal energy storage materials [Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics]

Comparative study on the solar still performance utilizing different PCM [Desalination]

Temperature stabilization using salt hydrate storage system to achieve thermal comfort in prefabricated wooden houses [Energy and Buildings]

Multiobjective optimization of a building envelope with the use of phase change materials (PCMs) in Mediterranean climates [International Journal of Energy Research]

Experimental research in the phase change materials based on paraffin and expanded perlite [Phase Transitions]

Enhanced Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Performance of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)/Modified SiO2 Composite Phase Change Material [Science of Advanced Materials]

Research roundup: Eutectic fatty acids; review of automotive applications; expanded graphite composites; more

Ben Welter - Wednesday, January 03, 2018

Prediction of the Properties of Eutectic Fatty Acid Phase Change Materials [Thermochimica Acta]

Phase-change materials (PCM) for automotive applications: A review [Applied Thermal Engineering]

A polymer-coated calcium chloride hexahydrate/expanded graphite composite phase change material with enhanced thermal reliability and good applicability [Composites Science and Technology]

Synthesis and characterization of beeswax-tetradecanol-carbon fiber/expanded perlite form-stable composite phase change material for solar energy storage [Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing]

An energy-efficient composite by using expanded graphite stabilized paraffin as phase change material [Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing]

Synthesis and characterization of PEG/ZSM-5 composite phase change materials for latent heat storage [Renewable Energy]

Fabrication and characteristics of composite phase change material based on Ba(OH)2·8H2O for thermal energy storage [Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells]

Silica fume/capric acid-palmitic acid composite phase change material doped with CNTs for thermal energy storage [Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells]

Hybridizing graphene aerogel into three-dimensional graphene foam for high-performance composite phase change materials [Energy Storage Materials]

Phase Change in Spiral Coil Heat Storage Systems [Sustainable Cities and Society]

Thermal management performance of phase change materials with different thermal conductivities for Li-ion battery packs operated at low temperatures [Energy]

Geocooling with integrated PCM thermal energy storage in a Mediterranean climate [Energy]

RAL Quality Association PCM approves updated quality and testing specifications

Ben Welter - Thursday, December 14, 2017

Members of the RAL Quality Association PCM have unanimously approved revised versions of two documents governing the association’s quality testing program.

The association, formed in 2004, promotes the use of high-quality phase change material and oversees independent testing of PCMs. Members include Croda, va-Q-tec, Pluss Advanced Technologies and Entropy Solutions. Members and non-members alike can submit their products to the association for independent testing and earn the RAL Quality Mark.

RAL PCM quality markThe first document, “Quality and Testing Specifications for Phase Change Materials,” also known as RAL-GZ 896, sets out the general principles for PCM. The document defines PCM, PCM composites, PCM objects and PCM systems; establishes performance requirements; and outlines the nature and scope of monitoring measures.

Improvements to RAL-GZ 896 include:

Clearer structure and wording, less text. The prior edition was judged to be strongly fragmented, hard to read and too long. At the same time some definitions, especially those in the glossary, required clarification.

Heat flow meter measurements are now permissible. This will make measuring larger PCM products much easier.

Reduced testing frequency during cycling. The prior edition required testing the quality criteria at fixed intervals during cycling. The new edition recommends testing at intervals during cycling (to reduce the risk that cycling is continued until the end despite the sample has already failed) and the intervals are wider. These changes are designed to reduce the cost of testing.

Including segregation. Segregation is an important criterion for salt hydrates especially and was included as additional quality requirement.

Better explanation of monitoring.

The second document provides detailed provisions and references to the certification of PCM, PCM composites, PCM objects and PCM systems. Improvements to this document include more detailed descriptions of measuring methods and guidance on which methods are appropriate for different types of PCM.

The revised documents will be submitted to the German RAL Institute for Quality Assurance and Certification, the PCM association’s governing body, for final review and approval. The revised documents are expected to take effect in early spring.

Patent application: Lubricating composition with phase change material

Ben Welter - Monday, December 11, 2017

U.S. patent application 20170349850 (applicant Total Marketing Services, Puteaux, France):

"Disclosed is a monophasic lubricating composition including a base oil, an oil chosen from the polyalkylene glycols (PAG) and a phase-change material, in particular water. The monophasic lubricating composition can be used, in particular, for lubricating a vehicle engine. It has improved thermal performance relative to the lubricant compositions of the prior art. It also helps reduce fouling of the engine parts."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20170349850.pdf

Research roundup: Erythritol in spheres; triplex-tube TES system enhancement; spray freezing of PCM; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, December 05, 2017

Theoretical and numerical analysis on phase change materials (PCM): A case study of the solidification process of erythritol in spheres [International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer]

Optimisation analysis of PCM-enhanced opaque building envelope components for the energy retrofitting of office buildings in Mediterranean climates [Applied Energy]

Solidification enhancement of PCM in a triplex-tube thermal energy storage system with nanoparticles and fins [Applied Energy]

System-Level Analysis of a Novel Air-Cooled Condenser using Spray Freezing of Phase Change Materials [Applied Thermal Energy]

Analysis of operational performance of a mechanical ventilation cooling system with latent thermal energy storage [Energy and Buildings]

Evaluation of two cooling devices for construction workers by a thermal manikin [Fashion and Textiles]

Study on improving the heat storage property of Ba(OH)2 • 8H2O with paraffin [Materials Research Express]

Research roundup: Direct evaporative cooling unit; diatomite-stabilized paraffin; hyperbranched polyurethane; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, November 21, 2017

Enhancement in free cooling potential through PCM based storage system integrated with Direct Evaporative Cooling (DEC) unit [Energy]

A Numerical Study on Phase Change Inside a Spherical Capsule [Exergetic, Energetic and Environmental Dimensions]

Performance of a thermal energy storage composite by incorporating diatomite stabilized paraffin as phase change material [Energy and Buildings]

Phase Change Materials for Application in Energy-Efficient Buildings [Cost-Effective Energy Efficient Building Retrofitting]

Thermal energy storage using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) incorporated hyperbranched polyurethane as solid-solid phase change material (PCM) [Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research]

Comparative Research on Solar Phase Change Material Storage Wall Systems under Different Summer Working Conditions [Energies]

The Application of Carbon Materials in Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage (LHTES) [Thermal Transport in Carbon-Based Nanomaterials]

H2O2-microwave treated graphite stabilized stearic acid as a composite phase change material for thermal energy storage [Royal Society of Chemistry]

Sodium acetate–urea composite phase change material used in building envelopes for thermal insulation [Building Services Engineering Research & Technology]

Integration of Pore Confinement and Hydrogen-Bond Influence on the Crystallization Behavior of C18 PCMs in Mesoporous Silica for Form-Stable Phase Change Materials [Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering]

Research roundup: Cascaded cold storage unit with multiple PCMs; evolution of global heat transfer coefficient; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, November 07, 2017

Evolution of global heat transfer coefficient on PCM energy storage cycles [Energy Procedia]

Thermal performance analysis of a cascaded cold storage unit using multiple PCMs [Energy]

An experimental investigation of discharge/solidification cycle of paraffin in novel shell and tube with longitudinal fins based latent heat storage system [Energy Conversion and Management]

An alternative approach for assessing the benefit of phase change materials in solar domestic hot water systems [Solar Energy]

Organic-inorganic hybrid shell microencapsulated phase change materials prepared from SiO2/TiC-stabilized pickering emulsion polymerization [Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells]

Preparation of phase change material emulsions with good stability and little supercooling by using a mixed polymeric emulsifier for thermal energy storage [Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells]

Optimal design of PCM thermal storage tank and its application for winter available open-air swimming pool [Applied Energy]

Research roundup: TES in Toronto high-rises; rotary desiccant cooling systems; natural convection characterization; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, October 24, 2017

Experimental investigation of latent thermal energy storage in high-rise residential buildings in Toronto [Energy Procedia]

Study on the Performance of Heat Storage and Heat Release of Water Storage Tank with PCMs [Energy and Buildings]

Design of effective fins for fast PCM melting and solidification in shell-and-tube latent heat thermal energy storage through topology optimization [Applied Energy]

Integrating photovoltaic thermal collectors and thermal energy storage systems using phase change materials with rotary desiccant cooling systems [Sustainable Cities and Society]

Development of thermal energy storage cementitious composites (TESC) containing a novel paraffin/hydrophobic expanded perlite composite phase change material [Solar Energy]

Experimental analysis of solar photovoltaic unit integrated with free cool thermal energy storage system [Solar Energy]

Natural convection characterization during melting of phase change materials: Development of a simplified front tracking method [Solar Energy]

Thermal behavior of latent thermal energy storage unit using two phase change materials: Effects of HTF inlet temperature [Case Studies in Thermal Engineering]

Experimental Investigation of a New Passive Thermal Management System for a Li-Ion Battery Pack Using Phase Change Composite Material [Electrochimica Acta]

Research roundup: Carbon-based nanoenhanced PCM; copper-powder-sintered frame/paraffin form stable PCM; thermoelectric harvester; more

Ben Welter - Monday, October 23, 2017

From Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews:

Experimental set-up for testing active and passive systems for energy savings in buildings – Lessons learnt
Review on thermal conductivity enhancement, thermal properties and applications of phase change materials in thermal energy storage

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Preparation and thermal performance of methyl palmitate and lauric acid eutectic mixture as phase change material (PCM)

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

A novel heat transfer model of a phase change material using in solar power plant

From Energy Procedia:

Experimental investigation of flow rate impact on thermal accumulation system with PCM

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Experimental and numerical investigation on the performance of carbon-based nanoenhanced phase change materials for thermal management applications

From International Journal of Thermal Sciences:

Thermal management of lithium ion batteries using graphene coated nickel foam saturated with phase change materials 

From Applied Energy:

Preparation of novel copper-powder-sintered frame/paraffin form-stable phase change materials with extremely high thermal conductivity
Experimental investigations of charging/melting cycles of paraffin in a novel shell and tube with longitudinal fins based heat storage design solution for domestic and industrial applications
A novel thermoelectric harvester based on high-performance phase change material for space application

From Sustainable Cities and Society:

Experimental Investigation of Phase Change Materials for Insulation of Residential Buildings
A comparison of battery and phase change coolth storage in a PV cooling system under different climates

Research roundup: Silk hydrogel as packaging material; interfacial polymerization; ecodesign of cladding system with PCM; more

Ben Welter - Wednesday, September 27, 2017

Silk hydrogel illustration

Temperature buffering capacity of silk hydrogel: A useful packaging material [Materials Letters]

Preparation and Characterization of Cross-linked Polyurethane Shell Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials by Interfacial Polymerization [Materials Letters]

Environmental and spatial assessment for the ecodesign of a cladding system with embedded Phase Change Materials [Energy and Buildings]

Novel shapeable phase change material (PCM) composites for thermal energy storage (TES) applications [Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells]

Novel approaches and recent developments on potential applications of phase change materials in solar energy [Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews]

Study of thermal conductive enhancement mechanism and selection criteria of carbon-additive for composite phase change materials [International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer]

Natural aging of shape stabilized phase change materials based on paraffin wax [Polymer Testing]

Multiphase transport phenomena in composite phase change materials for thermal energy storage [13th International Conference on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics]

Numerical investigation of cylindrical and spherical encapsulated thermal energy storage system with phase change materials [Transylvania Review]

Temperature Dependence of the Enthalpy of Alkanes and Related Phase Change Materials [Enthalpy and Internal Energy: Liquids, Solutions and Vapours]

Heat transfer enhancement of phase change materials by fins under simultaneous charging and discharging [Energy Conversion and Management]