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The award-winning Phase Change Matters blog tracks the latest news and research on phase change materials and thermal energy storage. E-mail tips and comments to Ben Welter, communications director at Entropy Solutions. Follow the blog on Twitter at @PureTemp. Subscribe to the weekly PCM newsletter. Or join the discussion on LinkedIn.

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Research roundup: Analysis of hysteresis method in EnergyPlus; pinecone biochar; passive cooling; thermal responses of concrete slabs; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, August 15, 2019

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Application and sensitivity analysis of the phase change material hysteresis method in EnergyPlus: A case study

From Scientific Reports:

A promising form-stable phase change material prepared using cost effective pinecone biochar as the matrix of palmitic acid for thermal energy storage

From Applied Energy:

Geometry-induced thermal storage enhancement of shape-stabilized phase change materials based on oriented carbon nanotubes
Passive cooling through phase change materials in buildings. A critical study of implementation alternatives

From Cement and Concrete Composites:

Thermal responses of concrete slabs containing microencapsulated low-transition temperature phase change materials exposed to realistic climate conditions

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Preparation and thermal properties of low melting point alloy/expanded graphite composite phase change materials used in solar water storage system
Frost and high-temperature resistance performance of a novel dual-phase change material flat plate solar collector

From Energy:

Novel micro-encapsulated phase change materials with low melting point slurry: Characterization and cementing application

From IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering:

Thermal performances and characterization of microencapsulated phase change materials for thermal energy storage

From Journal of Physics: Conference Series:

Effect of thermal performance on melting and solidification of lauric acid PCM in cylindrical thermal energy storage

From Construction and Building Materials:A sodium acetate trihydrate-formamide/expanded perlite composite with high latent heat and suitable phase change temperatures for use in building roof

From Materials Research Express:

Investigation of magnesium nitrate hexahydrate based phase change materials containing nanoparticles for thermal energy storage

From Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering:

Selection of phase change material for solar thermal storage application: a comparative study

From Renewable Energy:

Experimental study on the thermal performance of a grey water heat harnessing exchanger using phase change materials

From International Journal of Energy Research:

Climate applicability study of building envelopes containing phase change materials

Research roundup: Diatomite‐based hydrated salt composites; zinc oxide coating of hermetically encapsulated paraffins; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, July 25, 2019

From International Journal of Energy Research:

Design of diatomite‐based hydrated salt composites with low supercooling degree and enhanced heat transfer for thermal energy storage

From Journal of Physical Chemistry B:

Clusters in Liquid Fatty Acids: Structure and Role in Nucleation

From Construction and Building Materials:

Development of thermal energy storage lightweight structural cementitious composites by means of macro-encapsulated PCM
Preparation of microencapsulated phase change materials used graphene oxide to improve thermal stability and its incorporation in gypsum materials

From Journal of Power and Energy:

Numerical modelling of phase change material melting process embedded in porous media: Effect of heat storage size

From Advanced Materials Interfaces:

Phase Change Materials: Doubly Coated, Organic–Inorganic Paraffin Phase Change Materials: Zinc Oxide Coating of Hermetically Encapsulated Paraffins

From NASA Technical Reports Server:

Utilization of Micro Tube Heat Exchanger for Next Generation Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

From SN Applied Sciences:

Encapsulation of paraffin wax by rigid cross-linked poly (styrene divinylbenzene-acrylic acid) and its thermal characterization

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Transient performance of a Peltier super cooler under varied electric pulse conditions with phase change material

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Thermal optimization of a kirigami-patterned wearable lithium-ion battery based on a novel design of composite phase change material
An experimental and theoretical study of the solidification process of phase change materials in a horizontal annular enclosure

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Enhancement of the thermal energy storage capacity of a parabolic dish concentrated solar receiver using phase change materials

From Renewable Energy:

Numerical simulation on the thermal performance of a PCM-containing ventilation system with a continuous change in inlet air temperature

From Energy Fuels:

Graphene modified hydrate salt/UV-curable resin form-stable phase change materials: continuously adjustable phase change temperature and ultrafast solar-to-thermal conversion

From Journal of Industrial and Chemical Engineering:

Thermal performance enhancement of a phase change material with expanded graphite via ultrasonication

From Chemistry Select:

Microencapsulation of Stearic Acid into Strontium Titanate Shell by Sol‐Gel Approach for Thermal Energy Storage

Research roundup: Thermally conductive HDPE; pentaerythritol; RT44HC; epoxy resin composites; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, July 18, 2019

From Journal of Applied Polymer Science:

Thermally conductive high-density polyethylene as novel phase-change material: Application-relevant long-term stability
Reliable phase‐change polyurethane crosslinked by dynamic ionic‐bond crosslinking for thermal energy storage

From International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer:

A molecular dynamics study of the effects of crystalline structure transition on the thermal conductivity of pentaerythritol as a solid-solid phase change material
A comparative study of the effect of varying wall heat flux on melting characteristics of phase change material RT44HC in rectangular test cells
High thermal response rate and super low supercooling degree microencapsulated phase change materials (MEPCM) developed by optimizing shell with various nanoparticles

From Materials Research Express:

Evaluation of thermophysical properties of shaped inorganic hydrated salt-based phase change materials for wall energy storage

From Construction and Building Materials:

Measurement and analysis of thermophysical parameters of the epoxy resin composites shape-stabilized phase change material
Thermal enhanced cement-lime mortars with phase change materials (PCM), lightweight aggregate and cellulose fibers

From Energy and Buildings:

Properties of concretes enhanced with phase change materials for building applications

From Hong Kong Polytechnic University:

Development of encapsulation methods for organic-based phase change materials in water

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Recent developments in the synthesis of microencapsulated and nanoencapsulated phase change materials

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Experimental and modeling study on thermal performance of hydrated salt latent heat thermal energy storage system

From Energies:

Thermal Response of Mortar Panels with Different Forms of Macro-Encapsulated Phase Change Materials: A Finite Element Study

From Renewable Energy:

Influence of the location of discrete macro-encapsulated thermal energy storage on the performance of a double pass solar plate collector system

From IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science:

Simulation and Analysis of Fuel Tank Heat Exchanger Based on Phase Change Material
Simulation Analysis of Thermal Storage Process of Phase Change Energy Storage Materials

From Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects:

Synthesis of organic phase change materials by using carbon nanotubes as filler material

From Processes:

Preparation and Performance Analysis of Graphite Additive/Paraffin Composite Phase Change Materials

From International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction:

Thermoregulating and Hydrating Microcapsules: Contributions of Textile Technology in the Design of Wearable Products for Wheelchair Dependents

From Materials Today:

Experimental study on hybrid natural circulation type solar air heater with paraffin wax based thermal storage

From Thermal Science and Engineering Progress:

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Melting Characteristics of Phase Change Material-RT58

Glacier Tek adds flexible PCM microspheres to new line of cooling packs

Ben Welter - Monday, July 15, 2019

Glacier Tek LLC of Minneapolis has incorporated flexible PCM microspheres in the cooling packs used in its Flex Vest line of cooling vests. 

Glacier Tek's new cooling packsThe cooling packs, redesigned for improved comfort and performance, feature a soft, durable nylon shell. They reach a flexible state more quickly and feel colder than the previous packs. 

The Flex Vest is designed to maintain a comfortable microclimate of 18 degrees C for up to 2.5 hours. The new packs can be recharged in about 30 minutes in ice water or two hours in a refrigerator. But they are most effective when fully solidified in a freezer, which takes about an hour. The cooling packs weigh about 164 grams each and fit into 12 pockets inside the vest.

The novel cooling material, developed by PureTemp LLC of Minneapolis, is composed of a biobased phased change material. It is similar to the material used in the Glacier Tek therapy cooling packs introduced at the American College of Sports Medicine trade show in Orlando in May.

"PureTemp is excited to bring this shape-stabilized PCM format to the market," said Chris Servais, vice president of operations at PureTemp. "Glacier Tek has capitalized on its unique and improved characteristics.”

https://glaciertek.com/spare-flex-vest-cooling-pack-set/

Research roundup: Foamed cement blocks; polyethylene glycol/wood flour composites; radiant ceiling panels; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, July 11, 2019

From Trends in Food Science & Technology:

Micro/nano-encapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) as emerging materials for the food industry

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

A foamed cement blocks with paraffin/expanded graphite composite phase change solar thermal absorption material
Solvent-free preparation of bio-based polyethylene glycol/wood flour composites as novel shape-stabilized phase change materials for solar thermal energy storage
Spray-graphitization as a protection method against corrosion by molten nitrate salts and molten salts based nanofluids for thermal energy storage applications
Preparation and characterization of microencapsulated phase change materials containing inorganic hydrated salt with silica shell for thermal energy storage
Enhancing thermal conductivity of paraffin wax 53–57 °C using expanded graphite

From Solar Energy:

Simultaneous charging and discharging of phase change materials: Development of correlation for liquid fraction

From Energy and Buildings:

Numerical study of the electrical load shift capability of a ground source heat pump system with phase change thermal storage

From International Conference on Materials, Environment, Mechanical and Industrial Systems:

Simulation-based analysis of the use of PCM and shading devices to improve the thermal comfort in buildings

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Experimental study of a pilot-scale fin-and-tube phase change material storage
On-demand Intermittent Ice Slurry Generation for Subzero Cold Thermal Energy Storage: Numerical Simulation and Performance Analysis
Atomistic modelling of water transport and adsorption mechanisms in silicoaluminophosphate for thermal energy storage

From Clima 2019, 13th REHVA World Congress:

Experimental comparison of radiant ceiling panels and ceiling panels containing phase change material (PCM)

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Review of stability and thermal conductivity enhancements for salt hydrates
Characterisation of promising phase change materials for high temperature thermal energy storage

From Journal of Cleaner Production:

Self-assembly of 3D-graphite block infiltrated phase change materials with increased thermal conductivity

From Sustainable Cities and Society:

Thermal Performance Difference of Phase Change Energy Storage Units Based on Tubular Macro-encapsulation

From Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews:

State-of-technology review of water-based closed seasonal thermal energy storage systems

From Applied Energy:

Thermal energy storage in district heating and cooling systems: A review

From Polymers:

Fabrication and Characterization of Novel Shape-Stabilized Phase Change Materials Based on P(TDA-co-HDA)/GO Composites 

Research roundup: Spent coffee grounds; tropical tree fruit oils; natural rubber composites; more

Ben Welter - Friday, July 05, 2019

From Chemosphere:

Spent coffee grounds as supporting materials to produce bio-composite PCM with natural waxes

From Biotechnology Reports:

Novel phase change materials for thermal energy storage: evaluation of tropical tree fruit oils

From Construction and Building Materials:

Compressive strength and hygric properties of concretes incorporating microencapsulated phase change material
Thermal enhanced cement-lime mortars with phase change materials (PCM), lightweight aggregate and cellulose fibers

From Case Studies in Thermal Engineering:

Optimal fin parameters used for enhancing the melting and solidification of phase-change material in a heat exchanger unite

From Materials Chemistry and Physics:

Porous geopolymer as a possible template for a phase change material

From Journal of Physics: Conference Series:

Thermophysical Characteristics of VCO-Soybean Oil Mixture as Phase Change Material (PCM) using T-History Method

From Rubber Chemistry and Technology:

Phase-Change Material: Natural Rubber Composites for Heat Storage Applications

From Powder Technology:

An enthalpy based discrete thermal modelling framework for particulate systems with phase change materials

From Chemistry Select:

Carbon Soot/n–carboxylic Acids Composites As Form‐stable Phase Change Materials For Thermal Energy Storage

From International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer:

Experimental study of thermo-physical properties and application of paraffin-carbon nanotubes composite phase change materials
High thermal response rate and super low supercooling degree microencapsulated phase change materials (MEPCM) developed by optimizing shell with various nanoparticles

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Design optimization of the phase change material integrated solar receiver: A numerical parametric study

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Synthesis and characterization of ditetradecyl succinate and dioctadecyl succinate as novel phase change materials for thermal energy storage

From Advanced Materials Interfaces:

Doubly Coated, Organic–Inorganic Paraffin Phase Change Materials: Zinc Oxide Coating of Hermetically Encapsulated Paraffins

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Heat transfer enhancement of charging and discharging of phase change materials and size optimization of a latent thermal energy storage system for solar cold storage application

Research roundup: High-conductivity nanomaterials; paper board packaging; battery thermal management; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, May 16, 2019

From Heat and Mass Transfer:

Experimental and numerical analysis of composite latent heat storage in cooling systems for power electronics

From Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology:

A robust, flexible superhydrophobic sheet fabricated by in situ growth of micro-nano-SiO2 particles from cured silicone rubber

From Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry:

High-conductivity nanomaterials for enhancing thermal performance of latent heat thermal energy storage systems

From Building Simulation:

Optimization and sensitivity analysis of design parameters for a ventilation system using phase change materials

From Journal of Packaging Technology and Research:

Thermal Analysis of Paper Board Packaging with Phase Change Material: A Numerical Study

From Energy Storage:

Thermal performance of battery thermal management system using composite matrix coupled with mini‐channel

From Phase Transitions:

A study on preparation and properties of carbon materials/myristic acid composite phase change thermal energy storage materials

From ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces:

Melamine Foam Supported Form-stable Phase Change Materials with Simultaneous Thermal Energy Storage and Shape Memory Property for Thermal Management of Electronic Devices

From International Conference on Thermal Engineering:

Performance Enhancement of Unitary and Packaged Air Conditioners With Phase Change Material
Performance Comparison of Different Phase Change Materials For Solar Cooking During off Sun Sunshine Hours
A Review on Enhancement of Thermophysical Properties of Paraffin Wax PCM With Nanomaterials
Nano-Enhanced PCMs for Low Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Systems and Passive Conditioning Applications

From Chemistry Select:

Designing Coconut Oil Encapsulated Poly(stearyl methacrylate‐co‐hydroxylethyl metacrylate) Based Microcapsule for Phase Change Materials

From Evolution in Polymer Technology Journal:

Enhancement of Thermo-Regulating Textile Materials Using Phase Change Material

From Materials Research Express:

Improved thermal characteristics of Ag nanoparticles dispersed myristic acid as composite for low temperature thermal energy storage

From Applied Energy:

On the performance of ground coupled seasonal thermal energy storage for heating and cooling: A Canadian context

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Thermal stability enhancement of d-mannitol for latent heat storage applications

Research roundup: Zinc oxide coating; TEG-PCM power enhancement; graphen-oxide aerogel beads; more

Ben Welter - Friday, May 10, 2019

From Advanced Materials Interfaces:

Doubly Coated, Organic–Inorganic Paraffin Phase Change Materials: Zinc Oxide Coating of Hermetically Encapsulated Paraffins

From Applied Energy:

Efficiency analysis and experimental validation of the ocean thermal energy conversion with phase change material for underwater vehicle
A numerical and experimental analysis of an integrated TEG-PCM power enhancement system for photovoltaic cells
Molten salt selection methodology for medium temperature liquid air energy storage application

From Applied Energy Materials:

Graphene-Oxide Aerogel Beads Filled with Phase Change Material for Latent Heat Storage and Release

From Journal of Wuhan University of Technology:

Effect of Modified Vermiculite on the Interface of a Capric Acid-expanded Vermiculite Composite Phase Change Material with Phase Transition Kinetics

From Journal of Molecular Liquids:

Numerical simulation of the melting process of nanostructured based colloidal suspensions phase change materials including the effect of the transport of the particles

From Fibers and Polymers:

Encapsulated Phase Change Material Embedded by Graphene Powders for Smart and Flexible Thermal Response

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Influence of orientation on thermal performance of shell and tube latent heat storage unit

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Development and validation of the numerical model of an innovative PCM based thermal storage system

From 2nd International Conference on Power, Energy and Environment:

Feasibility Study of the Application of a Latent Heat Storage in a Solar Dryer for Drying Green Chili

From Solar Energy:

Tetradecyl oxalate and octadecyl oxalate as novel phase change materials for thermal energy storage
An analytical and comparative study of the charging and discharging processes in a latent heat thermal storage tank for solar water heater system
Effect of alkaline pH on formation of lauric acid/SiO2 nanocapsules via sol-gel process for solar energy storage

From Journal of Applied Polymer Science:

Preparation and characterization of paraffin microcapsules for energy‐saving applications

From Energy:

Flexible heatsink based on a phase-change material for a wearable thermoelectric generator

From Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology:

Superior Form-Stable Phase Change Material Made with Graphene-Connected Carbon Nanofibers and Fatty Acid Eutectics

From Construction and Building Materials:

Thermal and rheological characterization of bitumen modified with microencapsulated phase change materials

From Thermochimica Acta:

Development of spherical α-Al2O3-based composite phase change materials (PCMs) and its utilization in thermal storage building materials

From Journal of Power Sources:

Thermophysical properties of trimethylolethane (TME) hydrate as phase change material for cooling lithium-ion battery in electric vehicle

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Applications of cascaded phase change materials in solar water collector storage tanks: A review
Thermal conductivity enhancement of hydrated salt phase change materials employing copper foam as the supporting material

Research roundup: Spherical encapsulation; thermal therapy respirator; nanoporous composite; PCM effect on cement; more

Ben Welter - Friday, May 03, 2019

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Performance comparison of four spherically encapsulated phase change materials for medium temperature domestic applications

From International Journal of Thermal Sciences:

Exploration of a thermal therapy respirator by introducing a composite phase change block into a commercial mask

From Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews:

Review on nanoporous composite phase change materials: Fabrication, characterization, enhancement and molecular simulation

From Sci:

The Effect of Phase Change Materials on the Physical, Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Cement 

From Applied Energy:

High energy-density and power-density thermal storage prototype with hydrated salt for hot water and space heating

From Journal of Thermal Science and Engineering Applications:

Thermal Cycling of Calcium Chloride Hexahydrate With Strontium Chloride as a Phase Change Material for Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Applications in a Nondifferential Scanning Calorimeter Set-Up
Numerical Investigation of Scheffler Concentrator Receiver for Steam Generation Using Phase Change Material

From IntechOpen:

Solar Thermal Energy Storage Using Paraffins as Phase Change Materials for Air Conditioning in the Built Environment

From Reactive and Functional Polymers:

Design and fabrication of pH-responsive microencapsulated phase change materials for multipurpose applications

From Advances in Fluid and Thermal Engineering:

Experimental Investigation on a Solar Thermal Energy Packed Bed Sensible Heat Storage Combined with Latent Heat Storage

From Bulletin of Materials Science:

Development of an acetanilide/benzoic acid eutectic phase change material based thermal energy storage unit for a passive water heating system

From International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer:

Solidification performance of a latent heat storage unit with innovative longitudinal triangular fins

Tennessee startup introduces PCM-equipped dog cooling collar

Ben Welter - Friday, April 26, 2019

In extreme heat, active dogs need more than water and shade to avoid heat stroke. Solutions such as canine cooling vests and evaporative collars have been on the market for years. A Tennessee company recently added a new product to that list: a PCM-equipped canine collar designed to suppress body temperature during rigorous physical activity.

T-CoolK9 cooling collarT-CoolK9 launched its website, t-coolk9.com, in mid-March and made its first sale a week later. For Blake Fohl, the company's chief operating officer, T-CoolK9 is both a passion project and a full-time job. He began working on the product about a year ago.

Q: What sparked your interest in developing a cooling product for dogs?

A: "I was approached by an individual who had an idea, but didn't know how to bring it to market in the right way. My wife has been breeding German shepherds for two decades. We have dogs all over the world and doing about anything a dog can do, so we understood the dangers of canine heat stroke. I felt if there was a significant market, if the product could be proven to work as intended, it would be worth the time to create a new company from scratch."

Q: How did you arrive at the design of the cooling collar? It's different from competing products.

A: "We enlisted the help of a research scientist with an competency in biology and physiology. Our objective was to obtain a real grasp of how canines cool themselves, and to conduct trials which demonstrated the ability to reduce the dog's blood temperature. During our research of other products, we found they either had no scientific research behind them, or they just don't work. Dogs cool themselves through respiration primarily and to a very small degree through vascular temperature transfer in the feet and around the anus. That knowledge, in itself, led to the design of the collar. Looking at the arterial and vascular pathways really explains the design. Heat deflection sheets actually have the opposite effect. Water evaporation vests simply add weight to the dog and as you now know, they don't cool themselves that way. Other products which use ice packs, or maybe even phase change material, place the packs in the wrong position."

Q: How did you arrive at the melt point of the PCM (8°C)? Other products use 15-18°C.

A: "We identified pretty quickly that the PureTemp 15 we initially tested just wasn't cool enough, especially with double-coated dogs, such as German shepherds. So the scientist, a really smart guy, did some calculations and, working with PureTemp, we landed on PureTemp 8."

Q: How much PCM, by weight, is used in each collar?

A: "There are three PCM packs in the collar, two in the neck and one in the chest. We are averaging around 200 grams per collar."

Q: What kind of feedback are you getting from dog owners?

A: "It has been a little overwhelming. From search-and-rescue teams, police dogs, sport dogs, from people who do serious hiking with their dogs to owners who are just active with their pets, people are falling in love with the product. I think it is due to two reasons. First, the owners have a sense of confidence that they are doing the right thing to keep their dogs safe and comfortable, and secondly, they tell us the dogs actually get excited when they put the collar on."

Q: The collars are designed to fit all dogs with neck circumference of 10 inches or more. Do you plan on offering additional sizes?

A: "If the demand is there, we will make it. Our collar can fit any dog with a neck of 10 inches up to about 34 inches. That's a big dog. Seventy-five percent of the registered dogs in America fall into that range."

Q: Your site mentions that a portion of the profits from the sales of our product will be reinvested in additional scientific research. What's the focus of the research?

A: "We will be working with our original scientist and he is exploring creating a group of scientists and technologists to help understand the problem of canine heat stroke better and create new products and technologies to prevent the deaths of dogs. I could write for hours about how complicated this issue is, and how difficult it is to identify all the variables that go into creating a solution. We have a good first solution to help prevent the problem, but it is not the ultimate fail-safe product that we hope to have one day."