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The award-winning Phase Change Matters blog tracks the latest news and research on phase change materials and thermal energy storage. E-mail tips and comments to Ben Welter, communications director at Entropy Solutions. Follow the blog on Twitter at @PureTemp. Subscribe to the weekly PCM newsletter. Or join the discussion on LinkedIn.

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Research roundup: Dynamic behavior of PCM-27; Al2O3, SiO2 and TiO2 nano-inclusions; coacervation microencapsulation; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, August 14, 2018

From International Journal of Thermal Sciences:

An experimental and a numerical analysis of the dynamic behavior of PCM-27 included inside a vertical enclosure: Application in space heating purposes

From Journal of Molecular Liquids:

Thermal conductivity enhancement in organic phase change material (phenol-water system) upon addition of Al2O3, SiO2 and TiO2 nano-inclusions

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Experimental and numerical investigations of nano-additives enhanced paraffin in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger: A comparative study
Three-dimensional numerical and experimental investigation of the behavior of solar salts within thermal storage devices during phase change

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Formulation of a model predictive control algorithm to enhance the performance of a latent heat solar thermal system
Performance assessment of a new hydrogen cooled prismatic battery pack arrangement for hydrogen hybrid electric vehicles

From Carbohydrate Polymers:

Chitosan composite microencapsulated comb-like polymeric phase change material via coacervation microencapsulation

From Renewable Energy:

Analytical Considerations on Optimization of Cascaded Heat Transfer Process for Thermal Storage System with Principles of Thermodynamics

From Proceedings of Microscopy & Microanalysis 2018:

In-Situ TEM Observation of Crystallization in Phase-Change Material

From International Journal of Energy Research:

PCM briefing: Shipping costs rise for chemical companies; Inventure to build plant in China

Ben Welter - Saturday, August 11, 2018

Viking Cold Solutions founder and board chairman Paul Robbins, who retired as president at Caribbean Shipping Services in July, says he plans to resume a more active role in the day-to-day operations at Viking. The Houston company makes TES systems that pair phase change material with intelligent controls and remote energy-monitoring software to reduce commercial refrigeration costs.  

Chemical Week reports that shipping costs are on the rise for chemical companies as capacity tightens and truck traffic shifts to railroads.  

Inventure Renewables of Tuscaloosa, Ala., is partnering with Wilmar International and Desmet Ballestra Group on a new manufacturing plant in China's Jiangsu province, the Birmingham Business Journal reports. Construction is expected to begin in 2019. The plant will use Inventure’s soap carbonate technology to convert low-value processing residues into uncontaminated free fatty acids.

Maurizio ZaglioMaurizio Zaglio‎, right, international business development manager at Sunamp Ltd., was in Hangzhou, China, this week to present the company's new products at the 2018 China Heat Pump Annual Conference.

• New from Research and Markets: "Phase Change Materials (PCMs) - A Global Market Overview"

ARPA-E has issued a funding opportunity of up to $35 million for the High Intensity Thermal Exchange through Materials and Manufacturing Processes program, to develop new approaches and technologies for the design and manufacture of high-temperature, high-pressure, and highly compact heat exchangers. 

• The American Chemistry Council confirmed this week that high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is on the list of U.S. petrochemicals and plastics targeted for $16 billion in retaliatory tariffs from China. "Prospects of trade war are eroding business confidence from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act," says the ACC's Kevin Swift. The U.S. economy is expected to grow by 2.4 percent in 2019, Morningstar reports, but economists have cut the average forecast for 2020 from 2 percent to 1.8 percent. 

Research roundup: Silicon carbide for battery thermal management; Stefan moving boundary models; alkali nitrate/nitrite salts; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, July 24, 2018

From Renewable Energy:

Using Renewables Coupled with Thermal Energy Storage to Reduce Natural Gas Consumption in Higher Temperature Commercial/Industrial Applications

From Solar Energy:

Development of a solar thermal storage cum cooking device using salt hydrate

From Applied Energy:

One-step fabrication of fatty acids/nano copper/polyester shape-stable composite phase change material for thermal energy management and storage
Palmitic acid/polyvinyl butyral/expanded graphite composites as form-stable phase change materials for solar thermal energy storage

From Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering:

Preparation and phase change performance of Na2HPO4·12H2O@poly(lactic acid) capsules for thermal energy storage

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Thermal performance of sodium acetate trihydrate based composite phase change material for thermal energy storage
Performance improvement and energy consumption reduction in refrigeration systems using phase change material (PCM)
A thermal conductive composite phase change material with enhanced volume resistivity by introducing silicon carbide for battery thermal management
Numerical and Experimental study on the performance of a new two -layered high-temperature packed-bed thermal energy storage system with changed-diameter macro-encapsulation capsule

From Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects:

Green Nano-encapsulation Technique for Preparation of Phase Change Nanofibers Mats with Core-Sheath Structure
From International Journal of Thermal Sciences:

Analytical and numerical analysis of PCM solidification inside a rectangular finned container with time-dependent boundary condition

From Construction and Building Materials:

Elaboration and properties of a composite bio-based PCM for an application in building envelopes

From International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer:

Lorentz forces effect on NEPCM heat transfer during solidification in a porous energy storage system
A translucent honeycomb solar collector and thermal storage module for building façades

PCM briefing: Brookins confirmed as Alexium CEO; palmitic acid, stearic acid on U.S. tariff list

Ben Welter - Monday, July 16, 2018

Dr. Robert BrookinsAlexium International has appointed Dr. Robert Brookins, right, as chief executive officer and managing director of the company. Brookins, formerly executive vice president of research and development, was appointed interim CEO in May, replacing Dirk Van Hyning, who resigned for personal reasons. Alexium, based in Greer, S.C., and Perth, Australia, makes flame-retardant and PCM-enhanced fabric treatments.

Palmitic acid, stearic acid and their salts and esters are on a list of more than 6,000 items on which the United States may impose additional import tariffs in its escalating trade war with China.

Two top executives at Wilmar International have stepped down after Greenpeace published a report linking the world's largest palm oil trading company to a supplier accused of deforestation.

Active Energy Systems, a clean-tech startup in Tennessee, is developing an electro-thermal energy storage system that will use waste heat generated by data centers, industrial complexes, institutions and power plants to store and distribute energy more efficiently and cheaply than systems using conventional batteries. "Using power from the grid at off-peak times," Venture Nashville Connections reports, "the process transforms water into ice -- spraying it through an oil layer, which allows the water to freeze but not stick to a submerged heat exchanger. Instead, it forms pellets resembling Dippin' Dots ice cream, [co-founder Mitch] Ishmael said. Then the cycle operates in reverse, using waste heat to melt the ice and generate electricity back to the grid."

• New from Research Mentor:" Global Phase Change Material (PCM) Market will be Worth USD 770.1 Million by 2023"

• New from Questale: "Global Eutectic Phase Change Material Market Research Report 2018"

• "What are some new trends in solar energy research and development in 2018?" a Quora member asked recently. Three answers were posted. The one provided by Yogi Goswami, director of the University of South Florida's Clean Energy Research Center, got more than 120 "upvotes" and was picked up by Forbes magazine. Goswami discussed the strengths and weaknesses of two competing technologies: photovoltaics and concentrating solar power. He expressed confidence that CSP will eventually become commercially competitive because it has two big advantages over PV: "It uses the same thermal power conversion as the conventional thermal power (fossil fuel or nuclear based) and can therefore be integrated with the existing power infra-structure easily" and it "uses thermal energy storage which is about one-tenth the cost of battery storage."

Research roundup: Novel graphite-PCM composite sphere; sunlight-driven energy conversion; PCM-rich concrete overlay; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, July 10, 2018

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

A Novel Graphite-PCM Composite Sphere With Enhanced Thermo-Physical Properties
Fatty acids based eutectic phase change system for thermal energy storage applications

From Applied Energy:

Mathematical modeling and sensitivity analysis of solar photovoltaic panel integrated with phase change material
Compact liquid cooling strategy with phase change materials for Li-ion batteries optimized using response surface methodology
Multi-parameter optimization design of thermoelectric harvester based on phase change material for space generation

From Solar Energy:

Experimental study on the performance of a novel solar water heating system with and without PCM
Latent thermal energy storage for solar process heat applications at medium-high temperatures – A review
Carbon based material included-shaped stabilized phase change materials for sunlight-driven energy conversion and storage: An extensive review

From Construction and Building Materials:

Application of a PCM-rich concrete overlay to control thermal induced curling stresses in concrete pavements

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Energy investigation of glazed windows containing Nano-PCM in different seasons
Transforming a passive house into a net-zero energy house: a case study in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.

Research roundup: Humidity control material; solar water heaters; nanomaterials; flow-through wall elements; more

Ben Welter - Monday, July 09, 2018

From Energy and Buildings:

A Review on Enhancement of Phase Change Materials - A Nanomaterials Perspective
Phase change humidity control material and its impact on building energy consumption

From Solar Energy:

Optimization of melting and solidification processes of PCM: Application to integrated collector storage solar water heaters

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Experimental Investigation on the Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Novel Latent Heat Thermal Storage Equipment
Recent advancements on thermal management and evaluation for data centers
Heat Transfer Characteristics of an Expanded Graphite/Paraffin PCM-Heat Exchanger used in an Instantaneous Heat Pump Water Heater

From Thermal Science and Engineering Progress:

Numerical simulation of the melting of a NePCM due to a heated thin plate with different positions in a square enclosure

From Journal of Building Engineering:

Numerical study of flow-through wall elements with phase–change materials

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Exploratory investigation of a new thermal energy storage system with different phase change materials having distinct melting temperatures

From Renewable Energy:

Optimization assessment of the energy performance of a BIPV/T-PCM system using Genetic Algorithms

From Sustainable Cities and Society:

Coupled cooling method and application of latent heat thermal energy storage combined with pre-cooling of envelope: Temperature control using phase-change chair

Solar-powered concept camper uses PCM to keep passengers comfortable

Ben Welter - Monday, July 02, 2018

Dethleffs' e.home concept camperDethleffs GmbH & Co.'s solar-powered concept camper, introduced last year, is one of four winners in the transportation category of the German Innovation Award 2018. The "e.home" features 334 square feet of thin solar panels and a heating system that uses phase change materials to absorb heat when the outside temperature rises above 79° F. Fully equipped, its driving range on a full charge is just over 100 miles.

Christoph Gawalleck, technical director at Dethleffs, oversaw the two-year development of the e-home. He answered a few question via email:

Q: Describe the phase change material used in the vehicle.

A: “The PCM is Micronal from BASF. But BASF sold this business unit to Microtek Laboratories in May 2017. It is a paraffin. The melting point is 26°C, the solidification takes place at 23° C.”

Cross section of PCM panel used in Dethleffs e.homeQ: How is the PCM contained?

A: “The PCM is in aluminum plates that are shaped like corrugated cardboard [right]. So the heat can be passed very quickly to the PCM. The plate contains 4 kilograms of Micronal per square meter.”

Q: How much PCM is used in the camper?

A: “Approximately 35 kilograms.”

Q: Have you collected data on how well the PCM manages temperatures in the camper? Has it met expectations?

A: “The vehicle was at many shows last year, so the tests are still running at the moment.”

Q: What was the development team's great challenge?

A: “The biggest challenge was to get access to the battery capacity of the vehicle in addition to the solar cells.”

Q: Are there plans to commercialize the e.home camper?

A: “The vehicle was meant to present our ideas to customers and match them with their wishes. Of course, various individual elements, such as connectivity, will be incorporated into production vehicles.”

Q: Are there plans to use PCM technology in other Dethleffs campers?

A: “This is not known until the tests have been completed.”

PCM briefing: Cash infusion for Ice Energy; ASHRAE's new energy audit standard now available

Ben Welter - Monday, July 02, 2018

Ice Energy, make of the Ice Bear and other ice-based energy storage systems, is getting an infusion of cash from a private equity manager. The California startup will receive $40 million from Argo Infrastructure Partners to finance the delivery of its residential and commercial thermal storage contracts.

• "Chemistry for the Non-Chemist," a four-part online course offered by Chemical Watch, promises "a solid introduction to chemistry." The cost: $450.  

ASHRAE Standard 211 is now available for download. The standard "establishes consistent practices for conducting and reporting energy audits for commercial buildings. The standard defines the procedures required to perform Energy Audit Levels 1, 2, and 3; provides a common scope of work for these audit levels for use by building owners and others; c. establishes consistent methodology and minimum rigor of analysis required; and establishes minimum reporting requirements for the results of energy audits." 

Purchase College of New York will get a free replacement for its aging central heating plant, thanks to a collaborative thermal energy storage project from the New York Power Authority and Brenmiller Energy. The R&D project will investigate sensible thermal energy storage as a way to increase the efficiency of a standard combined heat and power system. The new system could save State University of New York $100,000 a year.

Fifty-four academic papers were presented at PCM 2018, the 12th IIR International Conference on Phase Change Materials and Slurries for Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, held in Orford, Canada, last month. "Investigations on the stability of metallic cans for PCM macro-encapsulation," "Investigation of compatibility of organic and inorganic PCMs with the materials of containers" and "Life cycle assessment phase changes of materials, component and system concept" are among the papers posted on the International Institute of Refrigeration website. 

John Lerch, vice president of sales and marketing at thermal energy storage company Axiom Exergy, writes about "5 things utilities should consider for energy storage." 

Wilmar International said it has ceased sourcing from palm oil suppliers allegedly associated with Gama, a company that was accused by Greenpeace of causing deforestation in Indonesia. 

• The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil and Canadian supply chain consultancy Ulula are collaborating to introduce a mobile phone app to report potential workers’ incidents and abuses on palm oil plantations. 

PCM briefing: DowDuPont shifts to small-scale R&D projects; Viking Cold Solutions has opening for business development manager

Ben Welter - Monday, June 04, 2018

Arktek vaccine carrierWired takes a close look at Arktek, "the Ebola vaccine's high-tech thermos." The World Health Organization is using the PCM-equipped container to transport the temperature-sensitive vaccine to wherever it's needed, whatever the conditions. The container is designed keep payloads colder than -65 C for five days.

• With an eye toward increased profits, CEO Edward Breen says DowDuPont is moving away from large-scale R&D projects in favor of less risky initiatives of $30 million or less.

Viking Cold Solutions has posted an opening for a business development manager for the Northeastern United States.

ASHRAE has published a new standard describing a methodology to apply building energy modeling throughout the design process. ASHRAE Standard 209-2018 defines minimum requirements for providing energy design assistance using building energy simulation and analysis.

Pelican BioThermal is opening its first Canadian drop point for the Credo on Demand rental program. The new drop point, at ATS Healthcare headquarters in Toronto, offers customers an additional location to return temperature-control pallet and bulk shippers. 

Research roundup: Nanofluid-based PCMs; microencapsulation of n-alkanes; finned solar PV PCM; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, May 31, 2018

From Chemical Engineering Journal:

Glycolysis of Advanced Polyurethanes Composites containing Thermoregulating Microcapsules

From Applied Thermal Engineering:
From Applied Energy:

From International Journal of Thermal Sciences:

From Chemical Engineering Science: