Phase Change Matters RSS

 

The award-winning Phase Change Matters blog tracks the latest news and research on phase change materials and thermal energy storage. E-mail tips and comments to Ben Welter, communications director at Entropy Solutions. Follow the blog on Twitter at @PureTemp. Subscribe to the weekly PCM newsletter. Or join the discussion on LinkedIn.

RECENT POSTS

TAGS

ARCHIVE

New dorm at Massachusetts college features 18,000+ square feet of PCM mats

Ben Welter - Thursday, August 15, 2019

Garfield passive house elements

A new dormitory at Williams College in Massachusetts is equipped with 18,200 square feet of mats filled with phase change material.

Garfield House, completed in time for the first students to move in this month, is designed to achieve Passive House PHIUS+ certification and LEED Gold certification. It features R-38 walls, R-60 roofs, triple-pane windows, high-efficiency energy recovery ventilation units, drainwater heat recovery and a 50 kw photovoltaic array.

The Infinite R PCM mats, made by Insolcorp LLC of New London, N.C., will help keep the passively cooled building comfortable when the weather is warm. The PCM is a salt hydrate with a peak melting point of 73 degrees F and a thermal storage capacity of about 170 joules per gram. The mats are deployed within Garfield's interior walls and above ceilings.

Jacob Higginbottom Jacob Higginbottom, director of higher education design at SGA Architects in Boston, was project manager. He first learned about the potential use of phase change material in building envelopes and interiors in March 2018.

"A member of our team had run across the Infinite R product at a trade show and our client was looking for ways to introduce passive cooling techniques since it’s their campus standard to build residence halls without active cooling," said Higginbottom, right. "Upon research we convinced the client that this could help and they decided to give it a try."

Garfield House has no active cooling system. Did that present any special challenges?

"The fact that Garfield did not have cooling wasn’t necessarily a challenge for the PCM, but perhaps was more of an opportunity for the project itself," said Mick Dunn, Insolcorp president. "The project wasn’t without a cooling source altogether. The design team implemented well-designed ERV/ventilation to leverage cool overnight temperatures. As part of the Passive House design process, some issues were identified with cooling and being able to maintain comfort without the introduction of A/C. So we worked with them to analyze a suitable amount of PCM to help address that cooling issue and help negate the need for investment in mechanical cooling other than ventilation.

"We’ve had numerous applications where the PCM has been used with no active cooling. Most of these have been very large industrial applications where the PCM has been used to control peak plant temperatures in buildings with very high internal heat loads. The results have been very good, and we’ve seen reductions as much as 10 to 15F compared with baseline temps. Sometimes we’ll be using a higher temp PCM to promote natural re-freezing. In more conventional occupied office/housing applications we’d typically still be looking for some kind of mechanical cooling mechanism such as ventilation if air conditioning is not present. And we’d probably be more likely to consider this as a viable strategy in climates such as California or New England than say Florida where humidity and overnight temperatures are very high."

The engineering firm Thornton Tomasetti of New York conducted whole building energy modeling in WUFI Passive, the program required by the Passive House Institute US (PHIUS). The models project cooling demand of 0.74 kBtu per square foot per year and a cooling load of 1.64 Btu per hour per square foot. A PCM thermal simulation model projects a peak cooling reduction of 10 degrees F.

Will the building's actual performance be measured against these metrics in the first year of occupancy?

Elsa Mullin, senior sustainability consultant at Thornton Tomasetti, says PHIUS "does not require post-occupancy measurement and verification after initial occupancy."

Higginbottom said LEED certification for the design portion is completed. All construction requirements have been submitted and he expects a LEED Gold certificate from the U.S. Green Building Council by the end of the month.

He said the use of PCM won't be a factor in the certification process.

"A building like this can easily achieve LEED Gold without the use of this material," he said. "PCM was introduced to address thermal comfort. Active cooling does not dramatically affect the building energy consumption in a use type like this (most loads come from domestic HW and plug loads and ventilation fans which are still required irrespective of cooling design)."

It's the first time Higginbottom has used PCM in a project. He hopes to use it in future projects.

"The interesting part about this product is the ability to fine-tune a building towards net zero or net positive and also to flatten out the demand for cooling and possibly downsize equipment in the future and save money on operating and up front costs," he said. "We would like to have more research to back that up, but it’s a speculation on our part that this would be a benefit to building owners’ first costs and life-cycle costs."

Research roundup: Analysis of hysteresis method in EnergyPlus; pinecone biochar; passive cooling; thermal responses of concrete slabs; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, August 15, 2019

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Application and sensitivity analysis of the phase change material hysteresis method in EnergyPlus: A case study

From Scientific Reports:

A promising form-stable phase change material prepared using cost effective pinecone biochar as the matrix of palmitic acid for thermal energy storage

From Applied Energy:

Geometry-induced thermal storage enhancement of shape-stabilized phase change materials based on oriented carbon nanotubes
Passive cooling through phase change materials in buildings. A critical study of implementation alternatives

From Cement and Concrete Composites:

Thermal responses of concrete slabs containing microencapsulated low-transition temperature phase change materials exposed to realistic climate conditions

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Preparation and thermal properties of low melting point alloy/expanded graphite composite phase change materials used in solar water storage system
Frost and high-temperature resistance performance of a novel dual-phase change material flat plate solar collector

From Energy:

Novel micro-encapsulated phase change materials with low melting point slurry: Characterization and cementing application

From IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering:

Thermal performances and characterization of microencapsulated phase change materials for thermal energy storage

From Journal of Physics: Conference Series:

Effect of thermal performance on melting and solidification of lauric acid PCM in cylindrical thermal energy storage

From Construction and Building Materials:A sodium acetate trihydrate-formamide/expanded perlite composite with high latent heat and suitable phase change temperatures for use in building roof

From Materials Research Express:

Investigation of magnesium nitrate hexahydrate based phase change materials containing nanoparticles for thermal energy storage

From Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering:

Selection of phase change material for solar thermal storage application: a comparative study

From Renewable Energy:

Experimental study on the thermal performance of a grey water heat harnessing exchanger using phase change materials

From International Journal of Energy Research:

Climate applicability study of building envelopes containing phase change materials

Patent application: PCM-based enhancement for reversed-cycle defrosting

Ben Welter - Thursday, July 25, 2019

U.S. patent application 20190226735 (applicant Sunamp Ltd., Lothian, Great Britain):

"A thermal energy storage system in the form of a reverse-cycle defrosting vapour compression system suitable for use with systems adapted to transfer heat from at least one heat source to at least one heat sink (heat transfer system), wherein said thermal energy storage system comprises: at least two thermal energy storage units; said thermal energy storage units comprise a thermal store comprising a heat exchanger with the storage units comprising a primary coil and a secondary coil; the primary coil is dedicated for use with refrigerant fluids and is adapted for inter-connection to both a condenser and a pressure-lowering device for use with a heat transfer system; the secondary coil is dedicated for use with heat transfer fluids and wherein said secondary coils are adapted to exchange heat with the phase change material in each thermal storage unit; said primary and secondary coils are surrounded by a suitable phase change material."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20190226735.pdf

Research roundup: Diatomite‐based hydrated salt composites; zinc oxide coating of hermetically encapsulated paraffins; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, July 25, 2019

From International Journal of Energy Research:

Design of diatomite‐based hydrated salt composites with low supercooling degree and enhanced heat transfer for thermal energy storage

From Journal of Physical Chemistry B:

Clusters in Liquid Fatty Acids: Structure and Role in Nucleation

From Construction and Building Materials:

Development of thermal energy storage lightweight structural cementitious composites by means of macro-encapsulated PCM
Preparation of microencapsulated phase change materials used graphene oxide to improve thermal stability and its incorporation in gypsum materials

From Journal of Power and Energy:

Numerical modelling of phase change material melting process embedded in porous media: Effect of heat storage size

From Advanced Materials Interfaces:

Phase Change Materials: Doubly Coated, Organic–Inorganic Paraffin Phase Change Materials: Zinc Oxide Coating of Hermetically Encapsulated Paraffins

From NASA Technical Reports Server:

Utilization of Micro Tube Heat Exchanger for Next Generation Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

From SN Applied Sciences:

Encapsulation of paraffin wax by rigid cross-linked poly (styrene divinylbenzene-acrylic acid) and its thermal characterization

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Transient performance of a Peltier super cooler under varied electric pulse conditions with phase change material

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Thermal optimization of a kirigami-patterned wearable lithium-ion battery based on a novel design of composite phase change material
An experimental and theoretical study of the solidification process of phase change materials in a horizontal annular enclosure

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Enhancement of the thermal energy storage capacity of a parabolic dish concentrated solar receiver using phase change materials

From Renewable Energy:

Numerical simulation on the thermal performance of a PCM-containing ventilation system with a continuous change in inlet air temperature

From Energy Fuels:

Graphene modified hydrate salt/UV-curable resin form-stable phase change materials: continuously adjustable phase change temperature and ultrafast solar-to-thermal conversion

From Journal of Industrial and Chemical Engineering:

Thermal performance enhancement of a phase change material with expanded graphite via ultrasonication

From Chemistry Select:

Microencapsulation of Stearic Acid into Strontium Titanate Shell by Sol‐Gel Approach for Thermal Energy Storage

Research roundup: Thermally conductive HDPE; pentaerythritol; RT44HC; epoxy resin composites; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, July 18, 2019

From Journal of Applied Polymer Science:

Thermally conductive high-density polyethylene as novel phase-change material: Application-relevant long-term stability
Reliable phase‐change polyurethane crosslinked by dynamic ionic‐bond crosslinking for thermal energy storage

From International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer:

A molecular dynamics study of the effects of crystalline structure transition on the thermal conductivity of pentaerythritol as a solid-solid phase change material
A comparative study of the effect of varying wall heat flux on melting characteristics of phase change material RT44HC in rectangular test cells
High thermal response rate and super low supercooling degree microencapsulated phase change materials (MEPCM) developed by optimizing shell with various nanoparticles

From Materials Research Express:

Evaluation of thermophysical properties of shaped inorganic hydrated salt-based phase change materials for wall energy storage

From Construction and Building Materials:

Measurement and analysis of thermophysical parameters of the epoxy resin composites shape-stabilized phase change material
Thermal enhanced cement-lime mortars with phase change materials (PCM), lightweight aggregate and cellulose fibers

From Energy and Buildings:

Properties of concretes enhanced with phase change materials for building applications

From Hong Kong Polytechnic University:

Development of encapsulation methods for organic-based phase change materials in water

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Recent developments in the synthesis of microencapsulated and nanoencapsulated phase change materials

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Experimental and modeling study on thermal performance of hydrated salt latent heat thermal energy storage system

From Energies:

Thermal Response of Mortar Panels with Different Forms of Macro-Encapsulated Phase Change Materials: A Finite Element Study

From Renewable Energy:

Influence of the location of discrete macro-encapsulated thermal energy storage on the performance of a double pass solar plate collector system

From IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science:

Simulation and Analysis of Fuel Tank Heat Exchanger Based on Phase Change Material
Simulation Analysis of Thermal Storage Process of Phase Change Energy Storage Materials

From Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects:

Synthesis of organic phase change materials by using carbon nanotubes as filler material

From Processes:

Preparation and Performance Analysis of Graphite Additive/Paraffin Composite Phase Change Materials

From International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction:

Thermoregulating and Hydrating Microcapsules: Contributions of Textile Technology in the Design of Wearable Products for Wheelchair Dependents

From Materials Today:

Experimental study on hybrid natural circulation type solar air heater with paraffin wax based thermal storage

From Thermal Science and Engineering Progress:

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Melting Characteristics of Phase Change Material-RT58

Research roundup: Foamed cement blocks; polyethylene glycol/wood flour composites; radiant ceiling panels; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, July 11, 2019

From Trends in Food Science & Technology:

Micro/nano-encapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) as emerging materials for the food industry

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

A foamed cement blocks with paraffin/expanded graphite composite phase change solar thermal absorption material
Solvent-free preparation of bio-based polyethylene glycol/wood flour composites as novel shape-stabilized phase change materials for solar thermal energy storage
Spray-graphitization as a protection method against corrosion by molten nitrate salts and molten salts based nanofluids for thermal energy storage applications
Preparation and characterization of microencapsulated phase change materials containing inorganic hydrated salt with silica shell for thermal energy storage
Enhancing thermal conductivity of paraffin wax 53–57 °C using expanded graphite

From Solar Energy:

Simultaneous charging and discharging of phase change materials: Development of correlation for liquid fraction

From Energy and Buildings:

Numerical study of the electrical load shift capability of a ground source heat pump system with phase change thermal storage

From International Conference on Materials, Environment, Mechanical and Industrial Systems:

Simulation-based analysis of the use of PCM and shading devices to improve the thermal comfort in buildings

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Experimental study of a pilot-scale fin-and-tube phase change material storage
On-demand Intermittent Ice Slurry Generation for Subzero Cold Thermal Energy Storage: Numerical Simulation and Performance Analysis
Atomistic modelling of water transport and adsorption mechanisms in silicoaluminophosphate for thermal energy storage

From Clima 2019, 13th REHVA World Congress:

Experimental comparison of radiant ceiling panels and ceiling panels containing phase change material (PCM)

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Review of stability and thermal conductivity enhancements for salt hydrates
Characterisation of promising phase change materials for high temperature thermal energy storage

From Journal of Cleaner Production:

Self-assembly of 3D-graphite block infiltrated phase change materials with increased thermal conductivity

From Sustainable Cities and Society:

Thermal Performance Difference of Phase Change Energy Storage Units Based on Tubular Macro-encapsulation

From Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews:

State-of-technology review of water-based closed seasonal thermal energy storage systems

From Applied Energy:

Thermal energy storage in district heating and cooling systems: A review

From Polymers:

Fabrication and Characterization of Novel Shape-Stabilized Phase Change Materials Based on P(TDA-co-HDA)/GO Composites 

Research roundup: Form-stable PCM; polyethylene glycol/quartz composites; fuzzy clustering; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, June 18, 2019

From Renewable Energy:

A N-octadecane/hierarchically Porous TiO2 Form-Stable PCM for Thermal Energy Storage

From International Journal of Energy Research:

Hybrid solar parabolic dish power plant and high‐temperature phase change material energy storage system

From Journal of Applied Polymer Science:

Thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of polyethylene glycol/quartz composites for phase change materials

From Journal of Cleaner Production:

Using fuzzy clustering and weighted cumulative probability distribution techniques for optimal design of phase change material thermal energy storage

From Construction and Building Materials:

Thermoregulation effect analysis of microencapsulated phase change thermoregulation agent for asphalt pavement

From Applied Energy:

Residential cooling using separated and coupled precooling and thermal energy storage strategies

Sunamp signs its first major UK contract

Ben Welter - Friday, June 07, 2019

Sunamp Ltd. has signed a memo of understanding to supply its PCM-based heat batteries to Fischer Future Heat under an original equipment manufacturer contract. Sunamp, based in Edinburgh, Scotland, says the deal involves "many thousands" of units and will be worth seven figures as sales ramp up. Leicester-based Fischer began selling the product, dubbed the Aquafficient, in February.

Andrew BissellIn an email interview, Sunamp CEO Andrew Bissell filled in a few details on the deal.

Q: Can you tell me about the PCM aspects of this product?

A: "Sunamp’s success in making a super-stable (40,000+ cycles tested) salt hydrate PCM (very energy dense) at 58C and combining it (in a highly insulated, cuboid enclosure) with a very high power heat exchanger (high power, high flow rate hot water) made a whole class of heat battery devices possible. Not least electric water heaters, with about 4x the energy density of a classic electric hot water tank and 5+ gallon per minute performance. A key innovation (patent pending around the details) was to use electric elements immersed inside the PCM to melt the PCM and charge the heat battery."

Q: What can you tell me about the manufacturing process?

A: "Because Aquafficient by Fischer Future Heat is based on Sunamp UniQ, it’s effectively been in production at Sunamp Factory for nearly a year. 

"By going down this OEM white label route, Fischer Future Heat could hit the ground running with Aquafficient - which they did! Sunamp’s manufacturing has had to scale already this year from 75 units a month to 75 units a week, with 75 a day on the near horizon. This to keep up with exponentially rising combined demand from Fischer, other OEMs, and large housing and regeneration projects.

“We keep scaling production and the demand keeps outpacing us! We're working really hard on scaling up production and appreciate our partners’ and their customers patience when they sometimes have to wait quite a number of weeks for the product they want.”

https://www.insider.co.uk/news/heat-storage-battery-pioneer-sunamp-16252849

PCM briefing: Building Skins conference agenda; tough words for CALMAC and Axiom Exergy

Ben Welter - Saturday, May 25, 2019

• The agenda is set for the 14th International Conference on Advanced Building Skins, to be held Oct. 28-29 in Bern, Switzerland. The Japanese architect and Pritzker laureate Shigeru Ban will be the keynote speaker. Among the more than 150 speakers is Thomas Friedrich of Innogration GmbH, Germany, who will discuss "collection of thermal energy from the façade" and "decentralized PCM storage elements for saving thermal energy." The registration fee is 680 euros and includes the conference documentation as well as meals during both days. Participants who register by May 31 will receive a 20 percent discount.

Mike HopkinsIn a LinkedIn post, former Ice Energy CEO Mike Hopkins shared his take on two of the California company's competitors in distributed thermal energy storage. "Look at @CALMAC, a Portfolio of Trane - been in our industry forever, good product, but haven't been able to secure utility deals because their large bespoke systems make it too risky to commit to MWs in a location on a schedule," wrote Hopkins, who is now CEO at Bakken Midstream. "Relative newcomer [Axiom Exergy] came to market with their #refrigeration #battery. Good concept but not plug and play. Not surprising, they seem to have recast themselves as a #cloud based power management company."

• Speaking of CALMAC: CEO Mark McCracken will speak on "some of the myths surrounding ice-based TES" at an ASHRAE technical seminar on thermal energy storage in building design in Hong Kong June 13. 

FedEx Express has launched a temperature-controlled shipping solution in Japan, Korea and Singapore. The company says its Medpak VIºC packaging, first introduced in Europe, provides 96-hour temperature stability. The reusable thermal packaging features vacuum insulated panels and phase change material validated to International Safe Transit Association 7D standards.

CIC energiGUNE, a research center in Spain's Basque Country, has an opening for a researcher in its thermal energy storage area. The research will focus on the storage of heat through reversible chemical reactions "in a range of temperature few explored so far (120 - 250 °C)." The application deadline is Sept. 11, 2019.   

Barbara Pause of Textile Testing & Innovation will be among the speakers at this year's Advances in Thermal Management conference, to be held Aug. 7-8 in Denver, Colo. Her topic: "Measuring and Modeling the Thermal Performance of Products Equipped with Phase Change Materials." 

• Thermal energy storage startup NET Energy of Chicago is among 10 finalists for the University of Chicago’s 19th annual Edward L. Kaplan New Venture Challenge. Winners will be announced next week, with the top companies sharing $250,000 in cash, along with $250,000 worth of office space and professional services from program sponsors. 

Research roundup: Night ventilation study; residential ice storage; fly ash and slag cement slurry; more

Ben Welter - Friday, May 24, 2019

From Building and Environment:

A parametric study of phase change material behaviour when used with night ventilation in different climatic zones

From Energy and Buildings:

Development and Evaluation of a Generalized Rule-Based Control Strategy for Residential Ice Storage Systems
Characterization of potassium carbonate salt hydrate for thermochemical energy storage in buildings

From International Journal of Energy Research:

Fly ash and slag cement slurry containing microencapsulated phase change materials

From Applied Energy:

Thermal response of annuli filled with metal foam for thermal energy storage: An experimental study
A scalable environmental thermal energy harvester based on solid/liquid phase-change materials

From International Journal of Hydrogen Energy:

Thermal management of metal hydride hydrogen storage reservoir using phase change materials

From Macromolecular Research:

Multiple Energy Harvesting Based on Reversed Temperature Difference Between Graphene Aerogel Filled Phase Change Materials

From Solar Energy:

Experimental studies on the effect of using phase change material in a salinity-gradient solar pond under a solar simulator

From Chemical Engineering Journal:

Thermal enhancement and shape stabilization of a phase-change energy-storage material via copper nanowire aerogel

From U.S. Office of Scientific and Technical Information:

Prototype Testing of Encapsulated Phase Change Material Thermal Energy Storage (EPCM-TES) for Concentrated Solar Power

From E3S Web of Conferences:

A PCM based cooling system for office buildings: a state of the art review

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Design of MtNS/SA microencapsulated phase change materials for enhancement of thermal energy storage performances: Effect of shell thickness

From Journal of Molecular Liquids:

Investigating the effects of hybrid nanoparticles on solid-liquid phase change process in a Y-shaped fin-assisted LHTESS by means of FEM

From Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews:

A review of microencapsulated and composite phase change materials: Alteration of strength and thermal properties of cement-based materials