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The award-winning Phase Change Matters blog tracks the latest news and research on phase change materials and thermal energy storage. E-mail tips and comments to Ben Welter, communications director at Entropy Solutions. Follow the blog on Twitter at @PureTemp. Subscribe to the weekly PCM newsletter. Or join the discussion on LinkedIn.

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Research roundup: Review of latent heat storage systems; triple-glazed window with PCM; myristic acid; more

Ben Welter - Wednesday, January 17, 2018

Design of a Latent Thermal Energy Storage System From Constructal Approach [ASME 2017 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition]

Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems with Solid–Liquid Phase Change Materials: A Review [Advanced Engineering Materials]

Simulation Research on the Dynamic Thermal Performance of a Novel Triple-glazed Window Filled with PCM [Sustainable Cities and Society]

Charging and Discharging Period Analysis of Myristic Acid as Phase Change Material [pdf] [International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology]

Solid-liquid phase equilibria of stearic acid and dicarboxylic acids binary mixtures as low temperature thermal energy storage materials [Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics]

Comparative study on the solar still performance utilizing different PCM [Desalination]

Temperature stabilization using salt hydrate storage system to achieve thermal comfort in prefabricated wooden houses [Energy and Buildings]

Multiobjective optimization of a building envelope with the use of phase change materials (PCMs) in Mediterranean climates [International Journal of Energy Research]

Experimental research in the phase change materials based on paraffin and expanded perlite [Phase Transitions]

Enhanced Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Performance of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)/Modified SiO2 Composite Phase Change Material [Science of Advanced Materials]

Research roundup: Non-eutectic PCM for cold storage; waste-to-energy plants; dynamic Kriging; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, January 09, 2018

Non-eutectic Phase Change Materials for Cold Thermal Energy Storage [Energy Procedia]

Effects of void spaces in a phase change material based thermal energy storage system [Energy Procedia]

Preparation and Performance of Composite Building Materials with Phase Change Material for Thermal Storage [Energy Procedia]

Environmental performance assessment of the application of high temperature phase change materials in waste-to-energy plants [Energy Procedia]

Preparation and properties of fatty acids based thermal energy storage aggregate concrete [Construction and Building Materials]

Optimizing fin design for a PCM-based thermal storage device using dynamic Kriging [International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer]

A new approach using un-encapsulated discrete PCM chunks to augment the applicability of solid gallium as phase change material in thermal management applications [Energy Conversion and Management]

Adjustment of thermal behavior by changing the shape of PCM inclusions in concrete blocks [Energy Conversion and Management]

Performance comparison of latent heat storage systems comprising plate fins with different shell and tube configurations [Applied Energy]

Characterization of microencapsulated and impregnated porous host materials based on calcium chloride for thermochemical energy storage [Applied Energy]

Research roundup: Composite PCM/concrete wall; thermal inertia in buildings; multilayer roof with two PCMs; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, January 04, 2018

Thermal impact study of a bio-based wall coupled with an inner PCM layer [Energy Procedia]

Numerical study of the thermal behavior of a novel Composite PCM/concrete wall [Energy Procedia]

Phase change materials for improving the building thermal inertia [Energy Procedia]

Thermal behavior in dynamic regime of a multilayer roof provided with two phase change materials in the case of a local conditioned [Energy Procedia]

Composite phase change materials with good reversible thermochromic ability in delignified wood substrate for thermal energy storage [Applied Energy]

D-mannitol for medium temperature thermal energy storage [Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells]

Novel metal coated nanoencapsulated phase change materials with high thermal conductivity for thermal energy storage [Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells]

State and state of charge estimation for a latent heat storage [Control Engineering Practice]

Microencapsulated n-alkane eutectics in polystyrene for solar thermal applications [Solar Energy]

Improving thermal properties of shape-stabilized phase change materials containing lauric acid and mesocellular foam silica by assessing thermodynamic properties of the non-melting layer [Thermochimica Acta]

Which PCM product idea is phony? Answer correctly for a chance to win a PureTemp mug

Ben Welter - Tuesday, January 02, 2018

PureTemp tumbler Entropy Solutions receives a dozen or so inquiries each week, most of them serious questions about PCM products, pricing and suitability for various applications. But some inquiries stretch the bounds of believability. Can you identify which of the product ideas below is fake? 

Send your answer to bwelter@puretemp.com. Five winners will be randomly selected from correct entries received by Jan. 4. The prize: a prototype coffee tumbler developed by Entropy Solutions several years ago, a product idea that was totally legit.

NOTE: You must be a Phase Change Matters subscriber to submit an entry. Representatives of organizations attending the first meeting of the PCM Industry Association of North America in October know the answer and are not eligible for this contest. Good luck to all the contestants!

Chocolate1. Mmm chocolate

We are exploring new ingredient technologies to produce a chocolate product that will release heat when it is consumed. Standard chocolate produces a minor cooling effect when it's melting in the mouth – the main fat is cocoa butter. The idea is to develop a new filling fat/oil that will release heat when consumed.

2. Premium padsWonder Woman

I represent a consumer goods company that is seeking materials that could help the feminine pad feel ‘cool’ in order to increase the comfort of use, especially when female is engaging in activities such as boxing, distance running and other extreme athletic challenges.

Chickens3. Chicken helper

I am hoping phase change materials could help solve a problem I have. First, I am completely serious. Second, here is the problem: I live in Texas and have 10 back yard laying hens. It is hot. Chickens start to go into heat stress at 85 degrees. Is it possible to enclose PCMs into a sort of pad for my chickens to rest near during the day?

Golden Girls4. Hot flashes

I am interested in using your product for a product I am developing for my design thesis. I am trying to make a responsive bra that senses a hot flash, and responds by turning on peltiers and "conducting" the cold through some sort of gel medium to the skin. Are any of your products the right thing for this?

Mosquito eggs5. Mosquito eggs

I'm wanting to ship mosquito eggs and need the parcel to stay dry, and within a prescribed temperature range of 10-35 degrees for up to three days. Would you be able to recommend a particular product of yours which could meet these requirements?

RAL Quality Association PCM approves updated quality and testing specifications

Ben Welter - Thursday, December 14, 2017

Members of the RAL Quality Association PCM have unanimously approved revised versions of two documents governing the association’s quality testing program.

The association, formed in 2004, promotes the use of high-quality phase change material and oversees independent testing of PCMs. Members include Croda, va-Q-tec, Pluss Advanced Technologies and Entropy Solutions. Members and non-members alike can submit their products to the association for independent testing and earn the RAL Quality Mark.

RAL PCM quality markThe first document, “Quality and Testing Specifications for Phase Change Materials,” also known as RAL-GZ 896, sets out the general principles for PCM. The document defines PCM, PCM composites, PCM objects and PCM systems; establishes performance requirements; and outlines the nature and scope of monitoring measures.

Improvements to RAL-GZ 896 include:

Clearer structure and wording, less text. The prior edition was judged to be strongly fragmented, hard to read and too long. At the same time some definitions, especially those in the glossary, required clarification.

Heat flow meter measurements are now permissible. This will make measuring larger PCM products much easier.

Reduced testing frequency during cycling. The prior edition required testing the quality criteria at fixed intervals during cycling. The new edition recommends testing at intervals during cycling (to reduce the risk that cycling is continued until the end despite the sample has already failed) and the intervals are wider. These changes are designed to reduce the cost of testing.

Including segregation. Segregation is an important criterion for salt hydrates especially and was included as additional quality requirement.

Better explanation of monitoring.

The second document provides detailed provisions and references to the certification of PCM, PCM composites, PCM objects and PCM systems. Improvements to this document include more detailed descriptions of measuring methods and guidance on which methods are appropriate for different types of PCM.

The revised documents will be submitted to the German RAL Institute for Quality Assurance and Certification, the PCM association’s governing body, for final review and approval. The revised documents are expected to take effect in early spring.

Patent application: Lubricating composition with phase change material

Ben Welter - Monday, December 11, 2017

U.S. patent application 20170349850 (applicant Total Marketing Services, Puteaux, France):

"Disclosed is a monophasic lubricating composition including a base oil, an oil chosen from the polyalkylene glycols (PAG) and a phase-change material, in particular water. The monophasic lubricating composition can be used, in particular, for lubricating a vehicle engine. It has improved thermal performance relative to the lubricant compositions of the prior art. It also helps reduce fouling of the engine parts."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20170349850.pdf

PCM briefing: Net-zero apartment complex in Los Angeles has BioPCM in walls

Ben Welter - Monday, December 11, 2017

Silver Star Apartments, the first multifamily affordable housing development to achieve the net-zero energy designation in Los Angeles, is reducing heat gain through the use of phase change material in the walls. Energy consultant Green Dinosaur, which worked on the 49-unit development, identifies the PCM as Phase Change Energy Solutions' BioPCM, 23Q-M27.

• New from QY Research: "Global Advanced Phase Change Material (PCM) Market Research Report 2017"

• The United States is poised for a 0.8 increase in non-pharmaceutical chemical output in 2017, with bigger increases in the following three years, the American Chemistry Council says.

Research roundup: Axisymmetric lattice Boltzmann model; slurry flow in heated helical coils; sebacic acid/CNT sponge PCM; more

Ben Welter - Monday, November 27, 2017

Optimized demand side management (DSM) of peak electricity demand by coupling low temperature thermal energy storage (TES) and solar PV [Applied Energy]

Investigation of solid-liquid phase change in the spherical capsule using axisymmetric lattice Boltzmann model [International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer]

Thermodynamic assessment of binary erythritol-xylitol phase diagram for phase change materials design [Calphad]

Thermal Properties Optimization of Microencapsulated a Renewable and Non-toxic Phase Change Material with a Polystyrene Shell for Thermal Energy Storage Systems [Applied Thermal Engineering]

Heat transfer analysis of microencapsulated phase change material slurry flow in heated helical coils: A numerical and analytical study [International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer]

Experimental test bed design and development for PCM-water exchangers characterization [Sustainable Cities and Societies]

Synthesis of novel phase change material microcapsule and its application [Polymer]

Sebacic acid/CNT sponge phase change material with excellent thermal conductivity and photo-thermal performance [Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells]


Research roundup: Direct evaporative cooling unit; diatomite-stabilized paraffin; hyperbranched polyurethane; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, November 21, 2017

Enhancement in free cooling potential through PCM based storage system integrated with Direct Evaporative Cooling (DEC) unit [Energy]

A Numerical Study on Phase Change Inside a Spherical Capsule [Exergetic, Energetic and Environmental Dimensions]

Performance of a thermal energy storage composite by incorporating diatomite stabilized paraffin as phase change material [Energy and Buildings]

Phase Change Materials for Application in Energy-Efficient Buildings [Cost-Effective Energy Efficient Building Retrofitting]

Thermal energy storage using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) incorporated hyperbranched polyurethane as solid-solid phase change material (PCM) [Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research]

Comparative Research on Solar Phase Change Material Storage Wall Systems under Different Summer Working Conditions [Energies]

The Application of Carbon Materials in Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage (LHTES) [Thermal Transport in Carbon-Based Nanomaterials]

H2O2-microwave treated graphite stabilized stearic acid as a composite phase change material for thermal energy storage [Royal Society of Chemistry]

Sodium acetate–urea composite phase change material used in building envelopes for thermal insulation [Building Services Engineering Research & Technology]

Integration of Pore Confinement and Hydrogen-Bond Influence on the Crystallization Behavior of C18 PCMs in Mesoporous Silica for Form-Stable Phase Change Materials [Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering]

PCM mats will be put to the test in 'tiny house' at Colorado School of Mines

Ben Welter - Friday, November 10, 2017

The effectiveness of bio-based phase change material is being tested in a 200-square-foot “tiny house” under construction at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colo.

Katie Schneider, Colorado School of MinesKatie Schneider, a junior majoring in engineering physics, is chairing the two-year student project, which is scheduled for completion in May 2018.

Though its interior is incomplete, the Mines Tiny House was exhibited at last month’s Solar Decathlon in Denver. Schneider said the project attracted interest from representatives of the energy and sustainability industry, as well as from other schools that might want to partner with the School of Mines for the next Solar Decathlon in 2020.

“It was a great experience for us to interact with others interested in what we're doing,” Schneider said, “and we got plenty of good ideas from the competitors as well.” 

Entries in the Solar Decathlon, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, are judged on energy efficiency, design, affordability and consumer appeal.

The University of Nevada-Las Vegas, one of 11 teams in this year’s decathlon, used a PCM product in the ceiling of its entry, a 990-square-foot home that won first place in the innovation category. Ecole Polytechnique of Lausanne, Switzerland, was the overall winner.

The School of Mines team is installing ENRG Blankets donated by Phase Change Energy Solutions of Asheboro, N.C. The multi-layer polymer mats, shown above, contain plant-based PCM with a melt-freeze transition temperature of 23º C (73º F). The mats are designed to absorb, store and release energy to help keep living spaces at comfortable temperatures and reduce energy costs.

"We plan to put the PCMs in the ceiling first, between the insulation and our ceiling paneling," Schneider said. "We want to take temperature measurements with and without the PCMs to really test their effectiveness. Then we will possibly put them in the walls, especially near the wheel wells of the trailer because that is a vulnerable point of heat loss for the tiny house."

http://minestinyhouse.weebly.com