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The award-winning Phase Change Matters blog tracks the latest news and research on phase change materials and thermal energy storage. E-mail tips and comments to Ben Welter, communications director at Entropy Solutions. Follow the blog on Twitter at @PureTemp. Subscribe to the weekly PCM newsletter. Or join the discussion on LinkedIn.

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Research roundup: Carbonized waste tires; cetyl palmitate/nickel foam; hydrated salt corrosion assessment; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, January 14, 2020

From Waste Management:

Evaluation of carbonized waste tire for development of novel shape stabilized composite phase change material for thermal energy storage

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Development of polyurethane foam incorporating phase change material for thermal energy storage
Facile synthesis and thermal performance of cetyl palmitate/nickel foam composite phase change materials for thermal energy storage
Optimal sizing design and operation of electrical and thermal energy storage systems in smart buildings

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Numerical investigation of the effects of the nano-enhanced phase change materials on the thermal and electrical performance of hybrid PV/thermal systems
Thermal storage and thermal management properties of a novel ventilated mortar block integrated with phase change material for floor heating: an experimental study

From Applied Energy:

Wood-based composite phase change materials with self-cleaning superhydrophobic surface for thermal energy storage

From Renewable Energy:

Corrosion assessment of promising hydrated salts as sorption materials for thermal energy storage systems
Experimental study on latent thermal energy storage system with gradient porosity copper foam for mid-temperature solar energy application
Selection of a phase change material and its thickness for application in walls of buildings for solar-assisted steam curing of precast concrete
Experimental assessment of Phase Change Material (PCM) embedded bricks for passive conditioning in buildings

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Analysis of energy retrofit system using latent heat storage materials applied to residential buildings considering climate impacts
Experimental and numerical simulation of phase change process for paraffin/expanded graphite/ethylene-vinyl acetate ternary composite
An experimental investigation on the evaporation of polystyrene encapsulated phase change composite material based nanofluids

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Lightweight mesoporous carbon fibers with interconnected graphitic walls for supports of form-stable phase change materials with enhanced thermal conductivity

From Energies:

The Effects of Fin Parameters on the Solidification of PCMs in a Fin-Enhanced Thermal Energy Storage System

From Journal of Materials Science:

Graphene aerogel-based phase changing composites for thermal energy storage systems

From Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology:

A study on development of the thermal storage type plate heat exchanger including PCM layer

From Journal of Power Sources:

Delayed liquid cooling strategy with phase change material to achieve high temperature uniformity of Li-ion battery under high-rate discharge

From Scientific Reports:

Modification of asphalt mixtures for cold regions using microencapsulated phase change materials

From ASES National Solar Conference:

A Study on the Thermal Energy Storage System Using Multiple PCMs [pdf]

From Molecules:

Assessment of Thermal Performance of Textile Materials Modified with PCM Microcapsules Using Combination of DSC and Infrared Thermography Methods

From Energy and Buildings:

Experimental study on thermal performance of a mobilized thermal energy storage system: A case study of hydrated salt latent heat storage

From Chemical Engineering Journal:

Shape-stabilized hydrated salt/paraffin composite phase change materials for advanced thermal energy storage and management

From International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer:

A conjugate heat transfer model for unconstrained melting of macroencapsulated phase change materials subjected to external convection

Patent application: Battery-cooling heat sink provided with PCM capsule

Ben Welter - Friday, September 20, 2019

U.S. patent application 20190288351 (applicant LG Chem Ltd., Seoul, South Korea):

"A battery module including a battery-cooling heat sink having a PCM capsule. The battery-cooling heat sink provides a uniform temperature of a cooling fluid flowing through the battery module using a PCM capsule, minimizes a temperature variation of the cooling fluid over the entire area of the heat sink formed in the battery module, and prevents the temperature at a cooling fluid outlet of the heat sink from being higher than that of a cooling fluid inlet."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20190288351.pdf

Research roundup: Mesoporous silica; nanoencapsulation of oleic acid PCM; flexible crosslinking; more

Ben Welter - Friday, September 20, 2019

From International Journal of Energy Research:

Facile functionalized mesoporous silica using biomimetic method as new matrix for preparation of shape‐stabilized phase‐change material with improved enthalpy
Binary mixtures of fatty alcohols and fatty acid esters as novel solid‐liquid phase change materials

From Journal of Applied Polymer Science:

Phase change material with flexible crosslinking for thermal energy storage

From Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry:

Nanoencapsulation of oleic acid phase change material with Ag2O nanoparticles-based urea formaldehyde shell for building thermal energy storage

From Renewable Energy:

Enhanced properties of diatomite-based composite phase change materials for thermal energy storage

From Energy:

Perspectives for short-term thermal energy storage using salt hydrates for building heating
Design and construction of mesoporous silica/n-eicosane phase-change nanocomposites for supercooling depression and heat transfer enhancement
Numerical investigations on performance of phase change material Trombe wall in building

From Energy and Buildings:

Potential of energy flexible buildings: evaluation of DSM strategies using building thermal mass
Numerical analysis in a full-scale thermal energy storage tank with dual PCM capsules

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Experimental determination and fractal modeling of the effective thermal conductivity of autoclave aerated concrete (AAC) impregnated with paraffin for improved thermal storage performance
Preparation and characterization of new nano-particle mixed as thermal storage material
Numerical investigation on integrated thermal management for a lithium-ion battery module with a composite phase change material and liquid cooling

From Chemical Engineering Journal:

Fatty Amines/Graphene Sponge Form-Stable Phase Change Material Composites with Exceptionally High Loading Rates and Energy Density for Thermal Energy Storage

From MATEC Web of Conferences:

Thermal conductivity of aerated concrete (AC) composites containing micro-encapsulated phase change materials [pdf]
Overheating mitigation in buildings: a computational exploration of the potential of phase change materials [pdf]

From Solar Energy:

Experimental study on the thermal performance of capric acid-myristyl alcohol/expanded perlite composite phase change materials for thermal energy storage

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Graphitization as efficient inhibitor of the carbon steel corrosion by molten binary nitrate salt for thermal energy storage at concentrated solar power
A strategy for designing microencapsulated composite phase change thermal storage materials with tunable melting temperature

From Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers 2019 Summer Conference:

Thermal Management System in Electric vehicle Battery Pack Using Phase Change Material

From Materials Chemistry and Physics:

Preparation and thermal properties of n-eicosane/nano-SiO2/expanded graphite composite phase-change material for thermal energy storage

From Sustainable Cities and Society:

Simulative optimization on energy saving performance of phase change panels with different phase transition temperatures

From Thermochimica Acta:

The stability and thermophysical properties of a thermal fluid containing surface-functionalized nanoencapsulated PCM

From International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer:

Functionalized mesoporous silica as matrix for shape-stabilized phase change materials

From Applied Energy:

Synthesis and characterization of microencapsulated sodium sulfate decahydrate as phase change energy storage materials

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Prototype latent heat storage system with aluminum-silicon as a phase change material and a Stirling engine for electricity generation

From Journal of Solar Energy Engineering:

Experimental Investigation and Numerical Modeling of Room Temperature Control in Buildings by the Implementation of Phase Change Material in the Roof
Suitability Assessment and Experimental Characterization of Phase Change Materials for Energy Conservation in Indian Buildings

Patent application: Regenerative solid-solid phase change cooling for an energy storage device

Ben Welter - Monday, September 09, 2019

U.S. patent application 20190273295 (applicant Anhui Xinen Technology Co. Ltd., Anqing Anhui, China):

"Disclosed is a technique for managing the temperature of rechargeable cells. An energy storage device can include a plurality of rechargeable cells disposed within a housing and a material disposed within the housing so as to completely surround each of the rechargeable cells in a particular plane. The material can have a thermal characteristic such that the material remains a solid upon absorbing heat from the rechargeable cells by changing a crystal lattice structure. Intrinsic latent heat properties of the material result in absorption or release of heat to maintain a temperature of a rechargeable cell within a pre-defined temperature range. A regenerative mechanism including a heat pump coil can restore the material to a lower energy crystal lattice structure."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20190273295.pdf

Research roundup: Diatomite‐based hydrated salt composites; zinc oxide coating of hermetically encapsulated paraffins; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, July 25, 2019

From International Journal of Energy Research:

Design of diatomite‐based hydrated salt composites with low supercooling degree and enhanced heat transfer for thermal energy storage

From Journal of Physical Chemistry B:

Clusters in Liquid Fatty Acids: Structure and Role in Nucleation

From Construction and Building Materials:

Development of thermal energy storage lightweight structural cementitious composites by means of macro-encapsulated PCM
Preparation of microencapsulated phase change materials used graphene oxide to improve thermal stability and its incorporation in gypsum materials

From Journal of Power and Energy:

Numerical modelling of phase change material melting process embedded in porous media: Effect of heat storage size

From Advanced Materials Interfaces:

Phase Change Materials: Doubly Coated, Organic–Inorganic Paraffin Phase Change Materials: Zinc Oxide Coating of Hermetically Encapsulated Paraffins

From NASA Technical Reports Server:

Utilization of Micro Tube Heat Exchanger for Next Generation Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

From SN Applied Sciences:

Encapsulation of paraffin wax by rigid cross-linked poly (styrene divinylbenzene-acrylic acid) and its thermal characterization

From Energy Conversion and Management:

Transient performance of a Peltier super cooler under varied electric pulse conditions with phase change material

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Thermal optimization of a kirigami-patterned wearable lithium-ion battery based on a novel design of composite phase change material
An experimental and theoretical study of the solidification process of phase change materials in a horizontal annular enclosure

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Enhancement of the thermal energy storage capacity of a parabolic dish concentrated solar receiver using phase change materials

From Renewable Energy:

Numerical simulation on the thermal performance of a PCM-containing ventilation system with a continuous change in inlet air temperature

From Energy Fuels:

Graphene modified hydrate salt/UV-curable resin form-stable phase change materials: continuously adjustable phase change temperature and ultrafast solar-to-thermal conversion

From Journal of Industrial and Chemical Engineering:

Thermal performance enhancement of a phase change material with expanded graphite via ultrasonication

From Chemistry Select:

Microencapsulation of Stearic Acid into Strontium Titanate Shell by Sol‐Gel Approach for Thermal Energy Storage

Patent application: Battery module, battery pack module and vehicle including battery pack

Ben Welter - Thursday, July 18, 2019

LG Chem battery module drawingU.S. patent application 20190221901 (applicant LG Chem Ltd., Seoul, South Korea):

"A battery module includes a plurality of battery cell assemblies, each having at least one battery cell; a bottom case configured to accommodate the plurality of battery cell assemblies; an upper case mounted to an upper side of the bottom case to expose a part of an upper side, a part of a front side and a part of a rear side of adjacent battery cell assemblies of the plurality of battery cell assemblies; and a cooling unit configured to cover the exposed parts of the adjacent battery cell assemblies and having a phase change material for cooling the adjacent battery cell assemblies."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20190221901.pdf

PCM briefing: Axiotherm wins smarter E Award; update on Malta thermal battery project

Ben Welter - Friday, May 17, 2019

Axiotherm GmbH of Germany was among the winners at this year's smarter E Awards in Munich. Axiotherm was honored in the renewable energy category for kraftBoxx, a thermal energy storage system that uses phase change technology for heating and hot water. The company says kraftBoxx has a higher energy storage capacity than conventional heat and cold storage systems. KraftBoxx is a joint development with Klara Energy and Tuxhorn within the scope of the PCM-based HeatSel product line marketed by Axiotherm. 

China says it will raise tariffs on $60 billion of U.S. goods June 1, including palmitic acid, stearic acid and their salts and esters. The move is response to the U.S. tariff hike on $200 billion worth of Chinese goods that took effect on May 10.  

• In an interview with SolarPACES, Malta Inc. engineer Sebastian Freund provides an update on the Massachusetts company's plans to develop a standalone thermal storage battery using molten salts. “We plan to build a pilot plant with 10MW power and at least six hours of storage duration, depending on customer specifications,” Freund said. Malta hopes to attract enough investors over the next three years to complete an 80MWh thermal energy storage pilot.

Research roundup: High-conductivity nanomaterials; paper board packaging; battery thermal management; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, May 16, 2019

From Heat and Mass Transfer:

Experimental and numerical analysis of composite latent heat storage in cooling systems for power electronics

From Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology:

A robust, flexible superhydrophobic sheet fabricated by in situ growth of micro-nano-SiO2 particles from cured silicone rubber

From Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry:

High-conductivity nanomaterials for enhancing thermal performance of latent heat thermal energy storage systems

From Building Simulation:

Optimization and sensitivity analysis of design parameters for a ventilation system using phase change materials

From Journal of Packaging Technology and Research:

Thermal Analysis of Paper Board Packaging with Phase Change Material: A Numerical Study

From Energy Storage:

Thermal performance of battery thermal management system using composite matrix coupled with mini‐channel

From Phase Transitions:

A study on preparation and properties of carbon materials/myristic acid composite phase change thermal energy storage materials

From ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces:

Melamine Foam Supported Form-stable Phase Change Materials with Simultaneous Thermal Energy Storage and Shape Memory Property for Thermal Management of Electronic Devices

From International Conference on Thermal Engineering:

Performance Enhancement of Unitary and Packaged Air Conditioners With Phase Change Material
Performance Comparison of Different Phase Change Materials For Solar Cooking During off Sun Sunshine Hours
A Review on Enhancement of Thermophysical Properties of Paraffin Wax PCM With Nanomaterials
Nano-Enhanced PCMs for Low Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Systems and Passive Conditioning Applications

From Chemistry Select:

Designing Coconut Oil Encapsulated Poly(stearyl methacrylate‐co‐hydroxylethyl metacrylate) Based Microcapsule for Phase Change Materials

From Evolution in Polymer Technology Journal:

Enhancement of Thermo-Regulating Textile Materials Using Phase Change Material

From Materials Research Express:

Improved thermal characteristics of Ag nanoparticles dispersed myristic acid as composite for low temperature thermal energy storage

From Applied Energy:

On the performance of ground coupled seasonal thermal energy storage for heating and cooling: A Canadian context

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Thermal stability enhancement of d-mannitol for latent heat storage applications

Research roundup: Zinc oxide coating; TEG-PCM power enhancement; graphen-oxide aerogel beads; more

Ben Welter - Friday, May 10, 2019

From Advanced Materials Interfaces:

Doubly Coated, Organic–Inorganic Paraffin Phase Change Materials: Zinc Oxide Coating of Hermetically Encapsulated Paraffins

From Applied Energy:

Efficiency analysis and experimental validation of the ocean thermal energy conversion with phase change material for underwater vehicle
A numerical and experimental analysis of an integrated TEG-PCM power enhancement system for photovoltaic cells
Molten salt selection methodology for medium temperature liquid air energy storage application

From Applied Energy Materials:

Graphene-Oxide Aerogel Beads Filled with Phase Change Material for Latent Heat Storage and Release

From Journal of Wuhan University of Technology:

Effect of Modified Vermiculite on the Interface of a Capric Acid-expanded Vermiculite Composite Phase Change Material with Phase Transition Kinetics

From Journal of Molecular Liquids:

Numerical simulation of the melting process of nanostructured based colloidal suspensions phase change materials including the effect of the transport of the particles

From Fibers and Polymers:

Encapsulated Phase Change Material Embedded by Graphene Powders for Smart and Flexible Thermal Response

From Applied Thermal Engineering:

Influence of orientation on thermal performance of shell and tube latent heat storage unit

From Journal of Energy Storage:

Development and validation of the numerical model of an innovative PCM based thermal storage system

From 2nd International Conference on Power, Energy and Environment:

Feasibility Study of the Application of a Latent Heat Storage in a Solar Dryer for Drying Green Chili

From Solar Energy:

Tetradecyl oxalate and octadecyl oxalate as novel phase change materials for thermal energy storage
An analytical and comparative study of the charging and discharging processes in a latent heat thermal storage tank for solar water heater system
Effect of alkaline pH on formation of lauric acid/SiO2 nanocapsules via sol-gel process for solar energy storage

From Journal of Applied Polymer Science:

Preparation and characterization of paraffin microcapsules for energy‐saving applications

From Energy:

Flexible heatsink based on a phase-change material for a wearable thermoelectric generator

From Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology:

Superior Form-Stable Phase Change Material Made with Graphene-Connected Carbon Nanofibers and Fatty Acid Eutectics

From Construction and Building Materials:

Thermal and rheological characterization of bitumen modified with microencapsulated phase change materials

From Thermochimica Acta:

Development of spherical α-Al2O3-based composite phase change materials (PCMs) and its utilization in thermal storage building materials

From Journal of Power Sources:

Thermophysical properties of trimethylolethane (TME) hydrate as phase change material for cooling lithium-ion battery in electric vehicle

From Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells:

Applications of cascaded phase change materials in solar water collector storage tanks: A review
Thermal conductivity enhancement of hydrated salt phase change materials employing copper foam as the supporting material

Patent application: Thermal barrier for a battery

Ben Welter - Friday, May 03, 2019

Hutchinson patent drawing

U.S. patent application 20190131675 (applicant Hutchinson SA, Paris, France):

"A thermal barrier to maintain the temperature of a battery. The barrier comprises elements with respectively cold and hot PCM materials, and elements, thermal isolators, arranged at least in case of some between two of the PCM material elements. ... With regard to the hot and cold PCM elements respectively, for two types of batteries for example, operating favourably at between 25° C. and 35° C. and between 45° C. and 55° C. (all to within 15%), it will in particular be possible to use encapsulated PCMs (typically microencapsulated) in a porous, open-pore matrix, preferably of the elastomer type, such as based on NBR and HNBR silicone."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20190131675.pdf