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The award-winning Phase Change Matters blog tracks the latest news and research on phase change materials and thermal energy storage. E-mail tips and comments to Ben Welter, communications director at Entropy Solutions. Follow the blog on Twitter at @PureTemp. Subscribe to the weekly PCM newsletter. Or join the discussion on LinkedIn.

Two Entropy advisors, Dr. Mohammed Farid and Lucas B. Hyman, are pleased to take your questions about PCMs and thermal energy storage. Send your questions to bwelter@puretemp.com. We'll select the best and post the answers here each week.

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Research roundup: Novel PCM plaster; chitosan-derived carbon aerogel; carboxylic esters; Trnsys simulation; more

Ben Welter - Thursday, March 02, 2017

Thermal effects of a novel phase change material (PCM) plaster under different insulation and heating scenarios [Energy and Buildings]

Form-stable phase change material embedded with chitosan-derived carbon aerogel [Materials Letters]

Investigation of Unbranched, Saturated, Carboxylic Esters as Phase Change Materials [Renewable Energy]

A simulation study of a solar collector using phase change materials for air heating application needs [AIP Conference Proceedings]

Intensification of monostearin (phase change material) synthesis in infrared radiated rotating reactor: Optimization and heterogeneous kinetics [Energy Conversion and Management]

Preparation research of novel composite phase change materials based on sodium acetate trihydrate [Applied Thermal Engineering]

The quasi-enthalpy based lattice Boltzmann model for solid-liquid phase change [Applied Thermal Engineering]

Synthesis and thermal properties of novel solid-solid phase change materials with comb-polyurethane block copolymer structure for thermal energy storage [Thermochimica Acta]

Synthesis of epoxy-loaded poly(melamine-formaldehyde) microcapsules: effect of pH regulation method and emulsifier selection [Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects]

Dual-encapsulation of octadecanol in thermal/electric conductor for enhanced thermoconductivity and efficient energy storage [Materials Chemistry Frontiers]

A Trnsys simulation of a solar-driven ejector air conditioning system with an integrated PCM cold storage [AIP Conference Proceedings]

Patent application: Cushion with phase change material containers

Ben Welter - Thursday, March 02, 2017

U.S. patent application 20170055719 (applicant Bob Jacquart, Ironwood, Mich.):

Jacquart patent application drawing"A cushion comprising a body of cushioning material having a first surface and a second surface opposing the first surface. The first surface has a plurality of upwardly extending fingers and a plurality of spaced apart pockets defined between the fingers. The cushion has a plurality of phase change material (PCM) containers each containing a phase change material, each of the phase change material (PCM) containers being disposed in one of the pockets in the body of cushioning material."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20170055719.pdf

Ice Energy developing line of ice batteries for commercial refrigeration

Ben Welter - Tuesday, February 28, 2017

Ice Energy plans to introduce a line of ice-based thermal energy storage systems for the commercial refrigeration market. The new Polar Bear line, under development at the company’s IdeaLAB in Riverside, Calif., is designed for supermarkets and the general commercial refrigeration market.

A variety of Polar Bear models will support a range of storage capacities and application needs. They are expected to be available by the end of this year. No word yet on pricing.

The company says the systems will enable businesses with large refrigeration-based energy loads to reduce their peak electricity demand by up to 95 percent, shifting six hours of a building's refrigeration-based peak load to cheaper off-peak hours. 

“The Polar Bear ice battery will seamlessly integrate with existing supermarket or commercial refrigeration systems,” the company said in a press release. “It will also provide a smart-grid controller to monitor energy use and control performance.”

Axiom Exergy and Viking Cold Solutions also offer load-shifting systems for the large-scale refrigeration market. Axiom, of Richmond, Calif., says its saltwater-based “refrigeration battery” can save customers up to 40 percent in energy use during peak hours. Viking, of Houston, Texas, has reported that its PCM-based technology showed reductions in electricity consumption of 30 percent and 39 percent in two low-temperature cold storage facilities in the San Diego area.

http://www.marketwired.com/press-release/ice-energy-extends-award-winning-multi-patented-ice-battery-technology-commercial-refrigeration-2195752.htm

PCM briefing: Encapsulation market projected to hit $17.9 billion; report casts shadow on solar-plus-storage

Ben Welter - Monday, February 27, 2017

• The global microencapsulation market is expected to reach $17.94 billion by 2025, according to a new report from Grand View Research. Microtek Laboratories, Encapsys, BASF and Aveka Inc. are among the companies profiled in the report, "Microencapsulation Market Estimates & Trend Analysis By Application (Pharmaceutical, Household Product, Agrochemical, Food Additive, Phase Change Material), By Region (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, RoW), And Segment Forecasts, 2014 - 2025"

• A Rochester Institute of Technology study casts a shadow on the economics of residential solar-plus-storage. The conclusion: A customer must face high electricity bills and unfavorable net metering or feed-in policies for "grid defection" to work. 

• New from Transparency Market Research: "Reusable Ice Packs Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2016-2024"

• New from QYResearch: "China Bio-Based Phase Change Materials Market Research Report 2017"

A one-day workshop on energy storage for building, solar and wind sectors will be held March 4 at Anna University in Chennai, India. Topics include integration of PCMs for passive cooling in buildings, energy-efficient cool thermal energy storage systems and thermal energy storage technologies for solar applications. 

The National Law Review has posted a detailed update on implementation of the newly revised Toxic Substances Control Act. A key takeaway: Resource and budgetary constraints under the Trump administration could have an impact on the Environmental Protection Agency’s ability to implement the new provisions.

• The latest issue of Chemical & Engineering News features a piece on “natural catalysts” derived from wild plants, mud and earthworms. 

Samit Jain, director at Pluss Advanced Technologies, talks about his company’s pharma logistics products in an interview with India's Financial Express.

PCM makers discuss formation of North American association

Ben Welter - Friday, February 24, 2017

Representatives of several U.S.-based PCM makers held a conference call this week to begin discussion of a proposed North American PCM manufacturers association. 

Entropy Solutions, Insolcorp, Phase Change Energy Solutions, Microtek Laboratories and representatives of companies in related industries, including Cold Chain Technologies, were among the participants. 

The effort, initiated at a thermal mass workshop in Florida last fall, is spearheaded by Dr. Jan Kosny of the Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems. He is compiling a list of all potential member companies. Please contact him at jkosny@cse.fraunhofer.org if you wish to join the discussion.

Patent application: Refrigeration system with PCM heat exchanger

Ben Welter - Friday, February 24, 2017

U.S. patent application 20170051954 (applicant Coca-Cola Co., Atlanta, Georgia):

Coca-Cola patent drawing"The present application provides a refrigeration system. The refrigeration system may include a compressor and a condenser downstream of the compressor. The condenser may include a refrigerant tube (550), an outer jacket (510) surrounding the refrigerant tube, and a phase change material positioned between the refrigerant tube and the outer jacket and in contact with the refrigerant tube. ... The phase change material heat exchanger (500) may include a heat source, a phase change material surrounding the heat source in whole or in part, and an outer jacket surrounding the phase change material. The phase change material removes heat when the heat source is on by melting and releases heat to the ambient when the heat source is off by solidifying." 

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20170051954.pdf

Research roundup: 2 promising PCM candidates; calcium carbonate shell; thermocapillary effects; more

Ben Welter - Tuesday, February 21, 2017

Thermal properties characterization of two promising phase change material candidates [Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry]

Self-assembly synthesis and properties of microencapsulated n-tetradecane phase change materials with calcium carbonate shell for cold energy storage [ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering]

Thermal Analysis of a Thermal Energy Storage Unit to Enhance a Workshop Heating System Driven by Industrial Residual Water [Energies]

Effect of a low-cost parabolic reflector on the charging efficiency of an evacuated tube collector/storage system with a PCM [Solar Energy]

Numerical study on free-surface jet impingement cooling with nanoencapsulated phase-change material slurry and nanofluid [International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer]

Heat transfer performance and melting dynamic of a phase change material subjected to thermocapillary effects [International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer]

Evaluation and optimization of melting performance for a latent heat thermal energy storage unit partially filled with porous media [Applied Energy]

Carbon nanotube/paraffin/montmorillonite composite phase change material for thermal energy storage [Solar Energy]

Synthesis and thermal properties of novel solid-solid phase change materials with comb-polyurethane block copolymer structure for thermal energy storage [Thermochimica Acta]

Synthesis and Properties of Polyurethane/Coal-Derived Carbon Foam Phase Change Composites for Thermal Energy Storage [Acta Physico-Chimica Sinica]

Patent application: PCMs comprising alkanolamides and diesters and methods of making and using them

Ben Welter - Monday, February 20, 2017

U.S. patent application 20170044414 (applicant Entropy Solutions LLC, Plymouth, Minn.):

"This invention generally relates to thermoregulation and temperature stabilization, thermal protection and insulation, and nucleating agents. In particular, in alternative embodiments, provided are organic phase change materials comprising diesters and alkanolamides. In alternative embodiments, provided are Phase Change Material (PCMs) compositions comprising diesters and alkanolamides, and methods for making and using them. In alternative embodiments, the Phase Change Material (PCMs) compositions are used for thermal energy management, including energy storage and/or temperature stabilization, in various applications such as building, automotive, packaging, garment and footwear, textiles, fabrics, synthetic fibers, foods, microcapsules and other energy storage systems."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20170044414.pdf

Patent application: Heated or cooled dishware and drinkware and food containers

Ben Welter - Monday, February 20, 2017

Ember patent drawingU.S. patent application 20170042373 (applicant Ember Technologies Inc., Westlake Village, Calif.):

"An actively heated or cooled food container can have a lid movable between an open and a closed position and an insulated body to which the lid can be attached. The insulated body can have a sidewall that defines a perimeter of the container body and a base, the sidewall and base defining one or more chambers that can be sealed by the lid. ... The heating and cooling system comprises a cooling element comprising a phase change material disposed in a chamber that surrounds at least a portion of the inner sidewall so that the phase change material is in thermal communication with at least a portion of the inner sidewall of the portable body, the phase change material configured to transition from one phase to a second phase at a predetermined temperature."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20170042373.pdf

Patent application: Cables made of phase change material

Ben Welter - Monday, February 20, 2017

U.S. patent application 20170045301 (applicant E.I. Du Pont De Nemours and Co., Wilmington, Del.):

"Disclosed is a cable comprising a core and a PCM layer surrounding the core wherein the PCM layer consists of a PCM composition wherein the PCM composition comprises a PCM and an ethylene copolymer; and the core consists of a yarn, strand, or wire each made of a natural or synthetic polymeric material or a metal. The invention is useful for thermal management in a variety of applications in such as, for example, automotive, building, packaging, garments, and footwear."

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20170045301.pdf